Marx’s work retains its relevance despite the collapse of communist party rule in the former Soviet
Of particular importance is Marx’s analysis of capitalism, which has yet to be bettered
Marxist analyses of international relations aim to reveal the hidden workings of global capitalism. These
hidden workings provide the context in which international events occur.
Marx himself provided little in terms of a theoretical analysis of international relations
His ideas have been interpreted and appropriated in a number of different and contradictory ways,
resulting in a number of competing schools of Marxism
Underlying these different schools are several common elements that can be traces to Marx’s writings
Marxist theorist have consistently developed an analysis of the global aspects of international
capitalism- an aspect acknowledged by Marx, but not developed in capital
World-systems theory can be seen as direct development of Lenin’s work on imperialism and the Latin
American dependency school.
Feminist writers have contributed to the analysis of international capitalism by focusing on the specific
role of women
Drawing upon the work of Antonio Gramsci for inspiration, writers within an ‘Italian’ school of
international relation have made a considerable contribution t thinking about world politics
Gramsci shifted the focus of Marxist analysis more towards super structural phenomena. In particular,
he explored the processes by which consent for a particular social and political system was produced
and reproduced through the operation of hegemony. Hegemony allows the ideas and ideologies of the
ruling stratum to become widely dispersed, and widely accepted, throughout society.
Thinkers such as Robert W. Cox have attempted to ‘internationalize’ Gramsci’s thought by transposing
several of his key concepts, most notably hegemony, to the global context. Pg. 142
Critical theory has its roots in the work of the Frankfurt school
Habermas has argues that emancipatory potential lies in the realm of communication and that radical
democracy is the way in which that potential can be unlocked
Andrew linklater has developed critical theory themes to argue in favour of the moral boundaries of the
political community, and has pointed to the European Union as an example of a post-westphalian
institution of governance.
New Marxism is characterized by a direct (re )appropriation of the concepts and categories developed
Rosenberg uses Marx’s ideas to criticize realist theories of international relations, and globalization
theory. He seeks to develop and alternative approach that understands historical change in world
politics as a reflection of transformation in the prevailing relations of production.
For Benno Teshke, the study of social property relations provides the means for analysing the key
elements of international relation, and the transition between one international system and another
Marxism and Globalization
Marxists see globalization as a negative process.
for Marxists, globalization is not new process, and it is the latest stage in the development of
international capitalism by west
Globalization further deepens the existing divide between the rich and poor countries.
Historical materialism: historical determinism- the communist manifesto, (1848)
The five modes of production
o Capitalist and,
o Socialist/communist Core of marx’s revolutionary theory
Exploitation Contradiction/antagonismclass struggle the overthrow of capitalism the dictator
shipconstruction of socialism The advent of communist society, without class, private property, and
the state the ultimate goal in the evolution political society
The characteristics of capitalism include:
A ruling class
The bourgeoisie or capitalists who own the means of productions
A production system based on the exploitation of labour “surplus value” by the bourgeoisie to
form the accumulated capital to drive the system
The alienation of the workers form the product of his w