PSY 302 Study Guide - Final Guide: Evolutionary Psychology, Impulsivity, Longitudinal Study

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Published on 21 Apr 2020
School
Ryerson University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 302
Professor
1. The biological processes involved in differences between males and females are referred
to as relating to:
1. A) sex.
2. B) gender.
3. C) gender typing.
4. D) gender roles.
2. The term gender is conventionally used to refer to:
1. A) one's social categorization as male or female.
2. B) one's genetically specified category as male or female.
3. C) behaviors associated with being male or female.
4. D) biological processes involving hormones.
3. The process of socialization and development of males and females is referred to as:
1. A) sex typing.
2. B) gender typing.
3. C) sex education.
4. D) gender socialization.
4. For boys, behaviors associated with males are referred to as _____, and behaviors
associated with females are referred to as _____.
1. A) sex-typed; cross-sex-typed
2. B) cross-sex-typed; sex-typed
3. C) gender-typed; cross-gender-typed
4. D) cross-gender-typed; gender-typed
5. Evolutionary psychologists view gender differences in behavior as stemming from:
1. A) the history of the human species.
2. B) differences in the contexts in which males and females reside.
3. C) imitating same-sex models.
4. D) gender segregation.
6. Evolutionary psychologists explain girls' affiliative orientation by proposing that it:
1. A) is a result of differences in brain structure.
2. B) conferred an advantage in seeking mates.
3. C) may have increased the probability that their offspring would survive long
enough
to reproduce.
4. D) is a less-developed manner of behaving.
Page 1
7. Which statement is NOT a criticism of the version of evolutionary psychology described
in the text?
1. A) It explains male behavior better than it explains female behavior.
2. B) Its claims cannot be tested.
3. C) It uses circular reasoning.
4. D) It is deterministic.
8. Which assertion would provide the BEST support for the evolutionary psychological
perspective on gender differences?
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1. A) Boys have more opportunity to observe the behavior of men, and girls have
more
opportunity to observe the behavior of women.
2. B) Girls and boys have different play styles from a very early age, and gender
segregation is initiated by children starting at least by preschool age.
3. C) Children remember gender-consistent information better than they remember
gender-inconsistent information.
4. D) Boys are more likely than girls to engage in rough-and-tumble play.
9. Evolutionary psychologists would be likely to view gender differences in mating habits
as due to:
1. A) differences in the roles society imposes on men and women.
2. B) fundamental gender differences in what is necessary to have viable, successful
offspring.
3. C) gender differences in intelligence.
4. D) observational learning during childhood.
10. Which theory does NOT account for children's early superior knowledge about gender-
typed objects and behaviors over cross-gender-typed objects and behaviors?
1. A) evolutionary psychology
2. B) gender schema theory
3. C) social identity theory
4. D) Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory
11. _____ focuses on physical sex differences and their behavioral and social consequences.
1. A) Evolutionary psychology
2. B) Neuroscientific perspective
3. C) Gender schema theory
4. D) Biosocial theory
Page 2
12. Biosocial theory focuses on _____ and their behavioral and social consequences.
1. A) gender-typed behaviors
2. B) sex differences in hormones
3. C) physical sex differences
4. D) gender roles
13. Which statement is NOT a proposal of biosocial theory?
1. A) Biology is destiny.
2. B) Social ecology can shape the different gender roles assigned to men and
women.
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3. C) Physical differences between males and females have behavioral and social
consequences.
4. D) Men's physical abilities tended to confer status in society for much of human
history.
14. A class of hormones that are typically thought of as male hormones are: A) androgens.
B) estrogens. C) pheromones. D) spermones.
15. Some researchers who take a neuroscience approach to gender differences argue that
those differences stem from different:
1. A) treatment by adults.
2. B) levels of androgens.
3. C) levels of knowledge about the two sexes.
4. D) play styles.
16. Levels of which activity would MOST likely be positively associated with the level of
androgens in the body?
1. A) parenting play
2. B) cooperation
3. C) physical aggression
4. D) empathy
17. Organizing influences of androgens on the nervous system occur when:
1. A) fluctuations in sex-linked hormones influence brain and behavioral responses.
2. B) differences in brain structure result in gender differences in abilities.
3. C) individuals self-socialize as a result of sex-linked hormonal influences.
4. D) sex-linked hormones affect brain differentiation.
Page 3
18. Activating influences of androgens on the nervous system occur when:
1. A) fluctuations in sex-linked hormones influence brain and behavioral responses.
2. B) differences in brain structure result in gender differences in abilities.
3. C) individuals self-socialize as a result of sex-linked hormonal influences.
4. D) sex-linked hormones affect brain differentiation.
19. In comparison with the brains of males, the brains of females have:
1. A) small differences in physical structure.
2. B) less dense nerve connections in the area of the brain associated with linguistic
processing.
3. C) greater hemispheric specialization.
4. D) a larger area of the brain associated with processing spatial information.
20. Which condition is associated with high levels of rough-and-tumble play in girls?
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Document Summary

When i grow up, i"d like to be a daddy. : d) sam, an infant, is more strongly attached to his father than to his mother. Page 7: kohlberg proposed that children"s understanding of gender begins at approximately age. _____ theory: a) kohlberg"s, b) gender schema, c) social identity, d) social cognitive. D) schema: awareness that gender remains that same over time is called gender: a) identity, stability. Page 13: the realization that gender is invariant despite superficial changes in a person"s appearance or behavior is referred to as gender, identity, stability, constancy. D) schema: organized mental representations about gender, including gender stereotypes, are referred to as a gender, identity, stability, constancy. Tv each day: a) 1, b) 3, c) 5, d) 7 or more. Page 15: infants appear to know that, female voices go with female faces and male voices go with male faces. Page 17: kendra is 10 years old.

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