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PSY105 - Chapter 6

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Helene Moore

PSY105 ­ CHAPTER 6 MEMORY THREE BOX MODEL OF MEMORY FOR MEMORAL STORAGE / INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL • Sensory memory - if we don't pay attention we lose it • Short-term memory • Long-term memory • Loss of memory comes from the environment SENSORY MEMORY STORE • sensory info form the world comes to your body • it only retains the material for short period of time • includes 2 subsystems for o Iconic: a fast decaying store of visual information  have a really short time span - 1 1/2 second o Echoic: a fast decaying store of auditory information  it also has a short life span but is longer than iconic  it lasts for 2-4 seconds SHORT TERM MEMORY • a place where information is kept for a few seconds but less than a minute • we can work with material that we may not ever remember again • It will vanish in 13-18 seconds • Example: phone number • If you want to remember something, use the technique of rehearsal • Rehearsal: process of keeping info in short-term memory by mentally repeating CAPACITY OF STM • George Miller believed the capacity of STM was 7 plus or minus 2 • there is a limit to how many units of info we can maintain in short term memory from the previous time • chunking allows more info to be managed in STM • Chunking: combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory LONG TERM MEMORY • LTM is an information acquired during an experience that guides present thought and action • There are two forms of general categories: Explicit and Implicit • Explicit - info that you can consciously recall o if someone asks you question, you immediately come up with an answer o it is also called declarative • Implicit - influence of past experiences o it is also called non-declarative o There are about 3 forms of it  Classical conditioning  Ex: Little Albert  Procedural - skills you can do  Ex: forgetting how to ride a bike but once you get on, your body knows what to do  Priming - prior exposure to info influences what you do in the future  Ex: exposure to many words and forgetting what you saw - exposure to information • BRAIN STRUCTURE IN IMPLICIT MEMORY o Classical conditioning of fear  Amygdala (central nucleus) o Procedural memory  Basal Ganglia  Substantia nigra  cerebellum o Priming  cerebral cortex IMPAIRED IMPLICIT MEMORY • damage to amygdala impairs conditioning of fear • damage to basal ganglia (striatum) or substantia nigra impairs procedural memory o Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease • Damage to cerebral cortex impairs priming o Patient MS failed to show visual priming after occipital lobe surgery o he showed no priming • EXPLICIT MEMORY • Two forms: • Episodic - collection of past personal experiences • Semantic - facts and concepts making up our general knowledge of world HM'S IMPLICIT MEMORY • here was no damage to the parts of the brain that underlie these associations, it was not affected • HM said he never did mirror drawing task • second day, he had no memory • third day, he still denied he never did it • But the progress continued. His abilities improved and learned a new skill by procedural THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND FORMING NEW EXPLICIT LTM • if someone has damaged their hippocampus they will not be able to form new explicit memories and they will not be able to learn new episodes of their life • hippocampus is necessary for memory • Anterograde Amnesia - who cannot form explicit memories • cannot make memories going forward • Retorograde Amnesia - someone who is unable to remember their past WHERE ARE EXPLICIT MEMORIES ARE STORED? • pioneers in the field • Karl Lashley devoted his entire life searching for where memories are stored o He made up the word "Engram" - physical part of the brain where your memory lives o He wasn't successful to find the engram • Donald Hebb: fire together, wire together • Research suggests that different aspects of a single memory are stored in different parts of the cortex • Memory is stored with strengthen connection between neurons that get intense • Long term Potentiation: stored as strengthened connections between neurons o LTP requires receptors for glumate o The "Doogie Mouse"  super smart mouse WHAT IS REQUIRED TO RETRIEVE EXPLICIT LTM? • if a memory is recent, in order for you to get it from your brain, you need hippocampus • overtime you don't need hippocampus because the connections become so strong, you need hippocampus anymore • Alzheimer's disease - tangle of wires ENCODING, STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL • Encoding - process by which info is transformed into an enduring memory o take info in the memory • Storage - process of maintaining info in memory over time o find a way to endure permanently in mind • Retrieval - process of bringing to mind info that has been previously encoded and stored o on test day, you need to be able to retrieve info ENCODING • personal informa
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