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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Terry Roswell

CRB100 MIDTERM REVIEW 2 Mainland Countries in the Caribbean: - Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname - Belize Caribbean describes a people, region and identity Divided by influences: - Dutch, French, British and Spanish Who is Caribbean? - Indigenous Peoples (natives) – Caribs, Arawak - European Peoples – British, French, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese - African People - Asian Peoples – Indian, Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese 3 Main Themes in Caribbean: Theme 1: Class/Colour/Culture Triangle - “race” dictates social status - Whites placed themselves at the top of hierarchy - System imposed by Europeans - to social construct dialect superior/inferior relationships - exploitation of non-Europeans - Palacio cites – Language, Religion Hierarchy based on power not numbers “Broken English” makes dialects looked down upon United States - based on “hypo-descent” system - classified as “white” or “black” - No middle group - “one drop” rule meant you were black even if it was from a distant ancestor - Whites in majority, blacks seen as threat - Class dynamics British/French - Whites represented minority therefore they relied on coloured (middle) group to act as buffer zone for protections from lowest class - Class system operated in same manner Spanish/Brazil - Numerous racial categories and divisions varying from “white” to “black” - Marginally better in terms of “race relations” Theme 2: Cultural Synthesis - defined as “the blending of diverse cultural elements into new and original forms” - referred to as “creolization” - seen through influence of European, African, Asian, Latin American and Indigenous cultures - Assuming one ethic group has influenced the Caribbean culture is gross injustice Examples: - Carnival celebrated during French Catholic pre-Lenten season and influenced by African traditions maintained in Trinidad - Calypso can be traced to African oral traditions, French/Spanish music, East Indian drumming and Black revivalist spirituals Theme 3: Culture as a “Resistance” - Maintaining ancestral connections or developing unique cultural characteristics historically used by oppressed to resist cultural domination - can be expressed overtly or subtly - Parades/festivals to mimic or ridicule - Drums used by Africans to communicate and linked to revolts during enslavement Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean and European Intrusion People were labelled “Indians” because Columbus thought he found India 1. The Ciboney - First in the region as 5000 BC - disappeared by 1500 - Hunter-gatherers, small families, cave dwellers - Ate shellfish, fish (protein), wild herbs - Least technologically advanced 2. The Arawak (aka Taino) - Dominated Greater Antilles and Bahamas st - 1 to encounter Spanish who described them as “peaceful, gentle, hospitable” - Agriculturalists and collectivists (cassava) - Equal gender relations – everyone had roles - Elaborate political systems (Caciques were “chiefs”), elders had experience (men and/or women) - Forms of worship – zemi 3. The Caribs (aka Kalinagos) - Migratory groups with expert boatmen and fierce warriors - Dominated Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles and NW tip of Trinidad - At war with Arawak – captured women/children - Reputation of being cannibals (caribal) but no evidence - This was the thought because women and children disappeared, assumed they ate flesh Similarities between Arawak and Caribs: - lived along coast for fishing - Technologically advanced - painted bodies/faces - Communal worldview and environmental perspective - Organized government/religion - Gender equality Europe before 1492 th - Mid 15 century begins outward expansion - Technology/ethnocentric attitude changed way Europe viewed the world - Feudal System – unequal relations between serfs and lords, need for trade routes - Power of the church was eroding - Believed their society was better - Spanish competing with Portugal for leading world power - Portugal was already trading in Africa and Far East - Needed money to fund wars and wanted to expand empire - Queen Isabella believed “lands of pagan people were hers by right of conquest” – in exchanges they were given religion - Goals: Gold, Religion spread, Land *Treaty of Tordesillas was signed in 1492 dividing the “New World” between Portugal (East) and Spain (West) Colonialism - Practice of intrusion, settlement, domination and exploitation by one people/nation over another people/nation (generally Euro-American practice) Features: - Completely Euro-centric system - Imposes unequal relations between colonizer/colonized - Euro culture dominant = Indigenous culture destroyed - Began in 1492 in Caribbean and still continues - The idea of racism is a central strategy of colonialism, in that it fosters antagonism between different groups, to divide and rule and to maintain the notion of European superiority Christopher Columbus - Italian navigator/explorer - set out to find India on behalf of Queen Isabella (died believing landed in Far East) st - 1 Voyage: 3 ships land in Bahamas, Hispaniola and Cuba in 1492 (returned with gold and 6 Lucayo slaves) - 2 Voyage: 17 ships, 1200 armed men, animals and plants (sugarcane) Columbus’ 3 Main Goals: - Gold (or other riches) - Claim land for Spain and establish trading posts and routes - Convert indigenous peoples to Christianity Encomienda - Spanish didn’t want to work so they forced indigenous to work for no wages - Some assigned to individual owners - Exploited, brutalized, raped, resisters killed Myths about Indigenous Peoples: 1. Cannibalism 2. They were annihilated - 4 million died but were not wiped out completely - 1507=60k, 1531=600 - Weapons, disease, exploitation, malnourishment 3. Genocide occurred from European superior military power - Couldn’t compete with guns, ships, etc. - Most deaths were from infectious diseases (some from the Europeans) – small pox, cold, syphilis 4. Indigenous people today live the same as pre-Columbian era - Culture has changed since then (Christianity, modernization, Western clothes and diets lost language, etc.) Views on Columbus: 1. Columbus the Hero (USA) 2. Traditional View 3. Columbus and other Europeans 4. Indians were the first Americans 5. Columbus the Villain European Colonization and the Middle Passage - 1559 Treaty of Catcau-Cambresis opens up Caribbean to other European interests - New groups initially planned to settle, but turned into plantation societies Early Colonial Possessions Spanish – Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Cuba, Trinidad British – Barbados, Bahamas, Bermuda, St. Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat French – St. Dominique, Martinique, Hispaniola, Guadeloupe, St. Christopher Dutch – St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. John Colonies of Exploitation: - used to extract wealth quickly, no long term strategy or desire to settle - Rise of Imperialism (European empires to make colony dependent) Colonies of Settlement: 16 /17 Century - Build colonies, settle and grow small scale
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