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Study Guide

SOC 107- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 33 pages long!)


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 107
Professor
Alan Sears
Study Guide
Final

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Ryerson
SOC 107
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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JANUARY 22/13
SOC107 LECTURE 1 THE IDEA OF NORMAL
What is Normal?
What is seen as the regular; following the norms.
Are some people more normal than others?
People that seem to not be following the norms are often stigmatized.
Changing ideas of normal.
Ideas of what is normal are always changing. Ideas that are normal in this generation can be much
different from previous generations.
Choices and Strategies identities
We all come to choices and strategies of how to manage what is normal and what is not. Some people
flee eig oral ad loe defig it.
Issues of Mental health and illness.
Issues of being normal and abnormal through mental health is often stigmatized/
Where does normal come from?
In any given situation where normal applies, where does it come from? People often do not ask why
something is normal because it seems so seldom, and seems that it is just the way it should be.
Normal as a problem to investigate;
Social Conventions:
-How ideas get communicated, and how people learn from one another about what is normal. What is
normal is usually communicated through unspoken processes through which we learn what to do in
different kinds of situations.
Expectations
Learning what to expect about whether or not certain things are allowed, and how to handle these
things. There is very rarely a written set of rules in a room that will explain what is allowed and what
is not, often these rules are not states they are not explicit in any sense or even rules that have
authority enforcing them, the most important expectations are things that are learnt to expect in
uosious as. Part of the a that ou ko ou’e leared hat to epet is he soeoe
violates it. For ex: Personal space.
Time, nature and conventions
We learn a whole bunch of conventions from each other, for example the convention of personal
space when violated.
Making the Familiar strange
Looking at something that is familiar, and asking fundamental questions about it to cause sociological
doubt about things that seem obvious. One of the methods talked about in the micro book is
ethnomethodology. (Garfinkle)
The power to define
Conventions and the power to define. Who has the power to define what is normal and what is
abnormal? Who has the power to make conventions and why?
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The centre normative social order
The centre is defined by three things,
-ho’s defiig the oratie soial order ofte those that hae poer ad soial adatages hih
has to do with a range of historic opportunities and control over resources)
-A particular viewpoint (standpoint)
-taken for granted practices
Power vs authority
Power has consequences for not being followed.
January 29/13
Lecture 2 KNOWING AND LEARNING
Tools for Examining Everyday Life
What counts as knowledge?
Sometimes personal experience stories, or redrawn stories, but in certain contexts you must have
statistical research and proof. In different contexts, different things count as knowledge. If you think of a
ig trial that is sho throughout the edia ad people are saig the ko the did it, the ight
think they know but that is not admissible in a court of law. We generally do not distinguish between
hat e ko ad hat is our opiio. Theres o suh thig as too old as a koledge, ut ol a
opinion.
Ways of knowing:
Everyday vs social science:
The everyday way of knowing is very rich and drawn stories in different times, and we become informed
of different things but that does not meet the criteria of social science. We must think of the difference
of our own everyday knowledge and the social scientific ways of looking at it. We must be able to move
between those modes deliberately and to make choices of what frame you are using and to be aware of
this frame. You must know the difference and in which context to use it in
Social Science as a way of Knowing
Positivism vs interpretivism:
Positivism is the version of knowledge, the approach to knowing that is most common in the natural
sciences. In the natural sciences, if you want to prove something, for example evolution or gravity,
you must do experiments that will prove through sensory data. You see then you record and you
notice and you make the objective process.
Interpretivism: Studying physics and stars and those type of things can be done with positivism but to
study humans things must be done differently because people are always making meanings. We all
make decisions upon all the sensations in this room, to concentrate on certain ones and not on other
ones. We need ways of studying human behaviour that include these factors rather than just objective
facts. We do not look around a room and see factually and objectively, immediately what we do is
classify people into categories. As soon as you see someone you put them into a category. The
interpretist way of knowing continues the ongoing process of identification. Symbolic interactionism
is a classic example of this.
Positivism is about objective facts and Interpretivism is about actual human experiences and trying to
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