ARCH 100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Quinoa, Pachacuti, Machu Picchu

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Inca empire were the single largest state level society in the Americas. Mountains in
the north of the region are lower and well vegetated than the south. Eastern and
western mountains separated by valley where state level societies developed.
Because of geographical diversity there were also cultural diversities. Potteries
helped archaeologists to make a timeline of the Andean Chronology. Independent
cultures made unique potteries. At other times one or two cultures dominated the
highland region called Horizons.
Lithic Period – stone tools are the basic items used in this period. Starts with the
very first people to arrive in south America. Lasted till 3500 BC.
Pre-ceramic Period – From 3500 BC to 1800 BC, a period before the invention of
pottery but marked by the start of agriculture and permanent villages. As well as
some of the earliest monuments. No state societies yet.
Initial Period – 1800 BC to 800 BC, first inro of pottery, also spread of agriculture
and start to see major evidence of inequality and elite members and increase in
population.
Early Horizon – 800 BC to 200 BC, first evidence of single culture dominating,
named Chavin culture, a major religious culture.
Early Intermediate Period – 200 BC to 500 AD, no dominant culture but 2 major
culture group, Moche in the north and Nazca in the south.
Middle Horizon – AD 500 to 1000, appearance of defined state societies, Wari in the
north and Tiwanaku in the south. Well established societies in the highlands.
Late Intermediate Period – AD 1000 – 1400, collapse of Wari and Tiwanaku, major
culture of Chimor appearing.
Late Horizon – 1400 to 1532, intro of Inca empire, largest society in the highland
mountain region in the Andes.
During the early horizon, Chavin de Huantar was dominating, it was a cultural site. It
spread all over the region, evidence from potteries all around. Main building were
the Castillo, a group of stone sculptures, inside there are tunnels and rooms
underground that had carved stone monuments with images of gods and animals
(jaguar, eagles, alligator that lived in the amazon) and powerful beings. Main god of
the Chavin culture was Raimondi Stela, evidence from a carved stone monument,
located in one of the underground room. Another stone monument was the Lanzon,
shows an image of a god, similar to Raimondi Stela, it is carved in the shape of foot
plough, thought of to be agricultural importance in it.
During early horizon, in the south coast of peru, appearance of distinct class of elite
members who built a massive cemetery in the Paracas region. This part of Peru was
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