BISC 101 LAB NOTES (Part 1)

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Tony Williams

BIOLOGY 101 LABORATORY GENERAL BIOLOGY FALL 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. BASIC ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY...3 II. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES......6 III. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION....18 IV. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY......27 V. ENZYMES........... VI. PHOTOSYNTHESIS........... VII. PLANT BIOLOGY (1): ROOT AND STEMS....... LAB MIDTERM 1: OCTOBER 15 VIII. PLANT BIOLOGY (2): LEAVES, FLOWERS, FRUITS AND SEEDS IX. ANIMAL BIOLOGY (1): INTEGUMENTARY, SKELETAL AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS X. ANIMAL BIOLOGY (2): RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS XI. ANIMAL BIOLOGY (3): EXCRETORY, REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS XII. ANIMAL BIOLOGY (4): NERVOUS AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS LAB FINAL: NOVEMBER 26 2 BASIC ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY I. STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM All atoms have electrons ( charge particles) and protons (+) eg. H: 1 proton, 1 e- Protons: in nucleus of atom Atomic #: number of protons in atom Electrons: move around nucleus in electron shells Neutron: neutral particles in nucleus eg. He: 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 e- E- do not all occupy the same shell (Recall n-shells, subshells, orbitals) 2 # of e-: In any shell is given by 2n where n = shell # - No more than 8 e- can be found in outermost shell of atom (octet rule) *Periodic table on p. 26 of BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES From K to Kr, 3 shell does not get 18 e- until n=4 is filling up (AUFBAU) - Same group = same e- # in outer shell II. ATOMIC WEIGHT Standard reference atom: Carbon (6 p, 6 n, 6 e-) of weight 12 daltons _____12 daltons____ 6 protons + 6 neutrons so each proton & neutron = 1 dalton eg. H: 1 proton = 1 dalton, He: 2 protons + 2 neutrons = 4 daltons III. ELECTRONEGATIVITY & BOND FORMATION Atoms: gain or lose e- until outer shell is stable = atoms with <4 e- will lose them Atoms that GAIN e- are more electronegative than atoms that LOSE e- On PT: increasing electronegativity, increasing electronegativity 1. Lower the atomic # in group = higher electronegativity The farther away the outer shell is from the + nucleus, the less force is holding onto e- 2. Elements requiring 1 or 2 e- for 8 outer e- > electronegative than those that need 6 or 7 3 IV. MOLECULAR FORMATION & BOND TYPES Elements different affinities (liking) for more e-: # of outer e- & distance of outer shells from nuclei Valence: # of e- atom must get, lose or share to reach full stable config. of 8 e- A. IONIC BONDING Ionic bonds: elements with different electronegativity - + eg. Cl is more electronegative than Na = Cl attracts e- more - Na: 1 e- in outer shell, it loses 1 e- since it takes less energy & vice versa for Cl Formation of NaCl: Na loses e- (cation Na ) Cl gains e- (anion Cl ) but whole molecule is neutral Atoms of less electronegative element will give e- more electronegative one B. COVALENT BONDING Covalent bonds: elements with similar electronegativity (compound) - Neither atom has greater attraction for shared e- eg. H & C have similar electronegativity: H needs to gain/lose 1 e- & C needs to gain/lose 4 e- so same affinities - Formation of CH (methane): 4 *4 H atoms share e- with each e- in outermost shell *Only covalent bonding between atoms of same elements: O 2,N 2 Cl 2 Br2, etc C. POLAR COVALENT BONDING 4
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