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KIN 110 Final Exam Review
How is energy extracted from lipids?
o Triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. A triglyceride is 3 fatty acids
attached to a glycerol. Glycerol is converted to pyruvate and glucose. The glucose enters
at the beginning of the cellular respiration cycle. Pyruvate combines with coenzyme A
and enters the citric acid cycle. Beta oxidation breaks down fatty acids to make acetyl
CoA in the citric acid cycle.
Rank from highest to lowest; which lipoprotein contains the greatest proportion of triglycerides:
Chylomicron, HDL, LDL, and VLDL.
o Rank from highest to lowest for the greatest amount of cholesterol.
o Chylomicrons and VLDLs delivery TGs to the body cells with the help of what enzyme?
o How do HDLs reduce blood cholesterol?
HDLs pick up cholesterol from other body cells and other lipoproteins and bring
the cholesterol back to the liver
List and produce the functions of proteins.
o Structural, enzymes, antibodies, transport proteins (lipoproteins), ion pumps, hormones
(angiotensin II, etc.), provide energy, maintain acid base balance (act as buffers, accept
and release protons or hydrogen ions)
o Because protein carries fat soluble vitamins, a protein deficiency can lead to a vitamin A
What is edema and how are proteins involved in its formation? Name a disease where endema
is a symptom.
o Fluid is leaking out of tissues and collecting around cells. If protein consumption is low,
you aren’t able hold on to the water and fluid and it leaks. Quashi orcor
o Which vitamins are fat soluble?
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
o Which vitamins are water soluble?
B vitamins, and Vitamin C
o Which vitamins function as antioxidants?
Vitamin C, E, carotenoid form of Vitamin A
o What is an antioxidant?
Prevents oxidation by providing electrons to neutralize free radicals
A friend has been a vegan for 4 years. She consumes lots of fruits, vegetables and grains, but no
animal products of any kind. She is starting to notice a tingling and numbness in her extremities.
What nutrient deficiency produced these symptoms? Why wasn’t it diagnosed earlier?