Kin 143 Final Study Guide.docx

24 Pages

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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Chapter 7 1 Define both flexibility and stretching Flexibility the range of motion of a joint Stretching a component of an exercise program2 List four benefits of maintaining adequate range of motion flexibility joint health Reduction of lower back paininjuries Pain relief Reduce delayed onset muscle soreness Athletic performance Improved posture relaxation3 What factors contribute to the range of motion of a joint Joint structureSkeletonPeople have different joint structure and bone shape Muscle ElasticityLength Sarcomeres Contractile unit of the muscle laid down in sequence during stretching increasing muscle length Nervous System Activity Reciprocal innervation contraction of antagonist muscle hip flexor contracts hip extensors relaxMuscle spindles These are sensory nerve endings in the muscle that detect muscle length change and rate of change Force applied to a muscle stimulates muscle spindles which activate protective reflexes and result in muscle contractionGolgi tendon organ located where muscle fibres insert into tendon When the muscle generates force the sensory terminals are compressed and a signal is sent to the spinal cord which signals the stretch reflex When Conducting a stretch the muscle spindles will fire to protect the muscle from over stretching but if the stretch is held long enough the stretch reflex diminishes and you can stretch the muscle further Because another muscle is also being stretched somehow ie contracting the reciprocal innervation helps the key muscle relax when stretch reflex disappears4 How can exercise limit flexibility Sports that involve sprains and bruises may increase scar tissue build up and limit range of motion5 Compare static and ballistic stretching Which method is better and why Ballistic stretching is like swinging your arms backwards while static stretching is like holding a position for 40 seconds Ballistic stretching is better because it develops dynamic flexibility better which helps with every day activities we use dynamic flexibility daily 6 Discuss the arguments for and against including static stretching in a warmup routine Static stretching can decrease muscle strength by 30Is dangerous when done incorrectly Reduces stretch reflex resulting in higher risk of injury to musclesStretching 1 leg may weaken the other Stretching can mask the pain during exercise which in turns increase risk of injury Cause tissue rupture and damage muscle fibre Increase compliance of the muscle and will take longer time to transmit force from muscle to bone7 Discuss the arguments for and against including ballistic stretching in a warmup routine Helps prepare people for what they are about to do muscles moving dynamically helps dynamic flexibility Less boring cause you getta do as a team If not careful can overstretch and lead to potential rupture More research is needed to solidify its effectiveness8 How do the concepts intensity duration and frequency apply to stretching programs They must be treated like any other program like resistance training program in the sense that referring to static program a stretch should be held for 20 40 seconds duration repeated 34 times each stretch intensity and for 23 times a week frequency9 Describe a stretching exercise that would be effective at stretching the muscles listed below Sternocleidomastoid neck retraction stretchTrapeziusupper trapezius stretchDeltoid anterior and posterior headsdoorway stretch and fixed bar stretch respectivelyLatissimus dorsibar lat stretchPectoralis majordoorway chest stretchTricepsstanding bicep stretchIliopsoasLunging hip flexor stretchAbdominals rectus abdominusLying abdominal stretch Lie prone on mat or floor Position hands on floor to sides of shoulders Push torso up keeping pelvis on floorAbdominals internal and external obliqueslying crossover stretch On floor or mat lie supine with arms extended to sides Lift one leg straight up Lower leg to opposite side toward hand
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