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CMNS 262 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Cultural Relativism, Abductive Reasoning, Queer Theory

Course Code
CMNS 262
Daniel Ahadi
Study Guide

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CMNS 262 Midterm Study Sheet
Aggregated Data:
When data are aggregated, groups of observations are replaced with summary statistics
based on those observations
Althusser, Louis:
Anthropometric Photography:
“measurement of humans”!
Refers to the measurement of individuals for the purposes of understanding human
physical variation
Was used to scientifically prove that the colonised subjects were racially inferior to their
European masters.
Binary Opposition:
A pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning.
The ideological meaning
Connotative Level:
– Implicit
– Connotation refers to the emotions, values, and associations that a sign gives
rise to in the reader, viewer, or listener.
– Works on a more subjective level of perception and experience
– Communicates what the sign implies / represents
– Connotative 1:• American flag; nation; culture; history (stars signifying the states)
– Connotative 2 : Mythological / Ideological: • Patriotism; liberty; justice; global power

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The literal meaning
Denotative Level: ‘What is there?’
– Explicit & manifest -- Literal meaning: Without evaluation, judgment, or context.
At this level signs are close to being value-free
Comte, Auguste:
• Enlightenment!
Auguste Comte!
• Systematic inquiry!
• Scientific research • Value free/Objective
Critical Theory:
• (Action Research) • Empowerment!
• Marginalization
• Branches:!
– Feminist Critique – Post-Colonialism – Queer Theory
Cultural Relativism:
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction or, informally, "top-down"
logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a
logically certain conclusion. It differs from inductive reasoning or abductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning links premises with conclusions.
» Writers, producers, and the production apparatus
insert codes and conventions into their media production
» When producing: there are choices made
» E.g.: Photographers consider components such as focusing, lighting, angle,
composition, background, colors, etc. to produce various representations, and readings,
of the same moment (Carter, n.d.).

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» Viewers according to their cultural knowledge and their viewing context
will make sense (decode) the media text
• Dominant/Hegemonic/Preferred meaning
Audiences accept what is being presented without question
– Identify with the encoded message of an image or text
• Negotiated meaning
Audiences negotiate with the text’s intended meaning and accept only some of
what is being presented
• Oppositional meaning
Audiences read completely against the preferred /dominant reading
Knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by
observation and experimentation.
Positive Eugenics:
Encourage the fertility of the fit
Negative Eugenics:
Policies aimed at restricting the breeding of the unfit
• “Feeble minded” (mentally ill) • Poor / lower classes
• Blind
• Promiscuous women
• Homosexuals
• Racial groups (Roma, Jews)
• Immigrant groups
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