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crim 356 final study.docx

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CRIM 356
Lynne Bell

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1) Anatomical and computerized facial reconstruction methods. Do they work? a. facial reconstruction: all people have different faces and unique skulls, whether they may be slight variations of proportions of the skull or differences in the form of the face b. anatomical: depend heavily on construction of facial muscles to define face (gerasimov): muscle marks, locator points, frontal and lateral views, structure and individualization: masseter muscle most important structure  tissue depth (e.g. muscles can be molded onto clay)  Manchester Method: tissue depth: Neave's method of muscle markers: tissue thickness data: model soft tissue depth c. Anatomic: shape of head (dolichocephalic, brachycephalic), soft or bony nose, nasal spine angle, position of eyes, mouth base form, eyebrow location d. computerized facial reconstruction:  scanned pictures, stock photos, uses anatomical and scanning  co-ordinates to map shape of skull bones  CT scans: skull thickness, surface morphology,  2D (facial composite over skull, features may be chosen from database: imposed onto picture)  3D: increased efficiency: methods either automated: focusing on anthropometrical data – using standard of tissue depth data o scanning technology used (e.g CT scanning) – determine thickness of skull and morphology e. Does it work?  2001: o match photo with reconstruction: 400/600 incorrect IDs, only one reconstruction shown to be positive ID o 3D facial reconstructions: 44% chose correct picture of individual  Works, but efficiency and usefulness can be debated – supported empirically, trained individuals, data sets used.  good as a last resort, takes too much time, though computer reconstructions are faster 2) Carbon 14 dating: forensic skeletal material a. conceptual principles of carbon 14 dating  determines age  Carbon-14: cosmic rays enter earth's atmosphere, collides with atoms, more collisions, turns from nitrogen-14 to carbon-14: halflife: 5.7k years o carbon-14 combines with oxygen = carbon dioxide, absorbed by plants – eaten by animals and plants, takes in carbon-14 o assumes ratio of normal carbon (c-12) to C14 in air is constant – some fluctuations o also assumes exchange reservoir is constant (reservoir effect) o once dead: doesn't take in carbon – look at ratio and compare to living organism b. usefulness of bomb curve in forensics: post mortem interval  BOMB CURVE: o testing of nuclear bombs: elevated levels of carbon-14, nearly doubled at peak o increased in 1950s, peak in 1963, slowly declined (no testing, Suess Effect: burning fossil fuels) o matching wiggles (small decline in-between increases in 1961-1962) and peaks:  cortical bone: (outside, hard, 8 year turnover)  trabecular (inside, spongy, 5-yr tu
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