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Ch 2 Cognitive Dev and language.doc

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EDUC 220
Robin Barrow

Ch 2 Cognitive Dev and languageWhat students can learn and when they are ready to learnDevelopment certain changes that occur in humans or animals bw conception and deathNot applied to all changes but rather to those that appear to orderly ways and remain for a reasonably long period of time eg change caused by brief illness isnt part of developmentPhysical dev physiological changes in bodySocial and emotional dev changes where one relates to others and to others personality and emotional understandingCognitive dev change in thinkingmental processes become more complex and sophisticated Maturation change occurred naturallyspontaneously and are genetically programmed unaffected by enviro except for malnutritionillness other changes from learning as we interact with the environature vs nurture3 qs concerning development theoriesNature vs nurtureBiology vs culture maturation vs learning innate vs acquired abilitiessome say 100 nature AND nurtureCoactions joint actions of bio and enviroeach shapes and influences the otherContinuity vs discontinuityAdding to and increasing abilities vs leaps or moves to new stages when abilities changeQualitative changes discontinuous change qualities change dramatically eg tadpolefrogEg Piagets theory of cognitive development in childrens thinking abilitiesQuantitative changes continuous change change is gradual eg person growing taller or losing weightCritical periods vs later experiences Timingis it too late Can they catch up to such abilities like lang Freud believed that early childhood experiences were critical especially for emotionalsocial and cog devSensitive periods times when one is especially ready for or responsive to a certain experiencesGeneral principles of developmentPeople develop at different ratesEg in classrooms some students mature and develop faster in thinking and social relationships than othersDevelopment is relatively orderlyPeople develop certain abilities before others Eg infants sitwalkbabbletalkstudents learn addition before algebraDevelopment takes place graduallyThe Brain and cognitive developmentCerebellum coordinates smooth balanced skilled movementsand for higher cognitive functions like learningHippocampus recalling new info and recent experienceThalamus ability to learn new info verbalNeurons tiny structures that store and transmit infoWhen were born we already have 100200billion neurons each one has 2500 synapses age23 1500 synapsekids these age have too much neurons as we grow neurons decrease2 types of pruning neurons are reduced overproduction of neuronsExperienceexpectant synapses are overproduced in certain parts of the brain during certain developmental periods expecting stimulationEg during the first months of life the brain expects visual and auditory stimulation so if normal visual and auditory stimulation occurs then visual and auditory areas of brain developBut those born deafreceive no auditory stimulationauditory processing area of brain becomes reliant more on visual infoThis explains why adults have difficulty with pronunciations that arent part of their native langExperiencedependent synaptic connections are formed based on individuals experiencesNew synapses are formed in response to neural activity in very localized areas of the brain when the individual isnt successful in processing infomore synapses are produced than kept after pruningInvolved in individual learning like learning unfamiliar sound pronunciations in a second language youre studyingStimulating environments may help in the pruning process in early life experienceexpectant and support increased synapse development in adulthood experiencedependentExtra stimulation wont really improve development for young children who are getting adequate or typical amountsso spending money on educational toys provides more stimulation than neededChilds brain by age 5 weigh about 90 of what theyll weigh in adulthood
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