ch.3- Europeans before 16th century
-Religion:Catholicism was the dominant religion in Europe
- Religious wars in Europe between catholics and protestants.Massacre of
- Renaissance:challenging catholic church,questioning the power of religion,
questioning traditional beliefs
- growing secular beliefs,becoming more independent.
- Public sphere was for men,women should remain home.
- persecution of women,accusation of them as witches.
- Sought practical applications for inventions:
Improvements in:Navigational aids,shipping,and armaments.
- Early European explorers of the americas:Norse,Portuguese,Spanish,Dutch,
English French,everyone from the coastline of Europe.
- Motives for contact varied by nation:exploration/glory,ﬁsh,fur,rich metals,
colonization,surplus population,trade expansion,spread christianity,markets for
--missionaries weren't evil,some honestly thought that ﬁrst nations people would
burn in hell if they didn't believe.---
- Norse were the ﬁrst to reach Canada,arrived in Newfoundland.Vikings ca.1000
- Rituals,holy days where people weren't allowed to eat things other than meat,
ﬁsh were a welcomed resource.
- Most countries didn't have permanent settlements.
- English needed to be more established due to lack of salt resources,couldn't
salt all ﬁsh,so had some settlement.
- English governmentt wanted to maintain the migratory ﬁshery,ﬁshing base in
At ﬁrst,trading between Europeans andAboriginals was very friendly.
- France takes control over fur trade ﬁrst in New France.
- 3 voyages
- told to ﬁnd riches,and to establish a settlement.
-Tried to settle in where Quebec is,failed due to scurvy and harsh winters. - Ethnocentrism :the attitude that one's own culture is superior to all others.
-Aboriginal peoples didn't like him.
-When demand for fur became uncontrollable,France created a foothold,New
France.----- Port Royal,Acadia founded by Pierre de Monts,1604.
-Allowed to settle on condition that 60 would migrate each year to make the
place more permanent.
- Europeans thought that it was empty land for them to do as they pleased.
Indigenous peoples in FurTrade
- vital to success,knew the terrain,knew where to ﬁnd furs,shared survival skills.
- Champlain r