Loyalists in Quebec
- Eastern townships too vulnerable to American attack.
- Gov. Haldimand
-- settle them north of Lake Ontario
- Had to get Natives' consent (proclamation of 1763)
-- during this time, indian territory was large
Native peoples frustated
- left out of the treaty process
-- lands---> US
-- US not bound by Proclamation of 1763; no longer part of british colonies
- Different views:
-- British: buying land
-- Natives: sharing land
- Natives end up losing valuable agricultural land.
Grand River--- modern south ontario
- 1784, Land grant given to Mohawk loyalalists and six nations allies, on either side of the Grand river.
- they felt safer in British territory and better off; six nations fought with British against americans during
-- six nations had to move from modern New York in order to take advantage of this grant.
- British were glad to have allies on frontier against americans.
- arrived in 1790s
- some vacated british trading posts in US territory
-- more so immigrants than refugees.
- others were attracted by land grants.
Constitution Act 1791
- Split Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada
- Upper canada (modern Ontario)
-- British laws
-- English-speaking majority
-- freehold tenure: allowed to apply for a land grant.
- Lower Canada (modern Quebec)
-- French-speaking majority
-- French civil law
-- seigneurial system allowed to continue where it existed, but new land grants are under new system
-- freehold tenure for future grants
- elected assembly
-- local taxes
-- ensured loyalty from settlers.
- Appointed legislative council
--- introduce own bills
--- veto bills from assembly
- Lieutenant-Governor, Governor
--- reserve consent to bills
--- dismiss assemblies. **** important: appointed council had more power.
- property qualification
- powerful appointed officials
- legislative council had a lot of power, appointed for life, given large land grants (all to establish a stable elite
force/ colonial "aristocracy")
- "clergy reserves": 1/7 of land were worked by people and money goes to church
-- no separation of church and state
- countered radical tendencies.
- First Liuetenant governor John Simcoe
- wanted to replicate English aristocracy and create a "little England" in Canada"
-- appointed those in his own class, gave them large grants of land, and patronage positions. Made sure they
got government contracts
-- added to the wealth and power of those in his own class.
- Not popular with american immigrants. The idea of such a tightly controlled govt wasn't appealing to anyone.
- established local govt, social services in districts and towns.
- Set wheels in motion to stop slavery
Cult of Dishonesty
- middle-class ideals of feminitiy
- marriage, strategy to form alliances
- focus on motherhood and domestic realm
- make homes moral havens
- some informal power
-- had power in domestic realm, but lives were constrained within domestic realm
- English-speaking elite