HSCI 307- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 31 pages long!)

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Published on 28 Mar 2018
Department
Course
Professor
SFU
HSCI 307
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Research:
A systematic enquiry that aims to generate new scientific knowledge
Generates new ideas; original
Advances knowledge, leads to new insights
Builds on work of others
Systematic
Repeatable
4 Pillars of Health Research
Biomedical research: investigating mechanisms of health or disease at the cellular, body
system, or whole body level
Clinical research: on/for patients, and includes diagnosis and intervention
Health services and policy research: investigating health services themselves, how they are
delivered, quality and costs, and how they are received
Social, cultural, environmental, and population health research: investigating
populations and broader health determinants
Purpose of Health Research:
Describe (state of health of a population, the incidence of a disease, its manifest ways, signs
and symptoms)
Explain
why a certain health problem occurs, difference among sub-populations of interest
improve understanding of the etiology of different diseases (cohort study)
Predict
Control (draws on findings from D&E to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate the
health problem of interest)
Chapter 3 The Research Process
The Role of the Researcher
Study-specific responsibilities
1. Develop the research question
2. Select a study design
3. Ensure that the study is ethically sound ***
Research ethics board REB or institutional review board IRB:
…to ensure the safety and well-being of the individuals participating in the research
study
Risks; risks vs. benefits; subject selection; informed consent; and safety and privacy
4. Data collection phase
5. Data analysis
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6. Prepare the study findings
7. Repeat
Administrative responsibilities
1. Establish a budget
Realistic, feasible, and based on funds allocated
2. Timeline or schedule
Start and end dates of the study
Any milestones that need to be met
3. Record-keeping
Financial statements, participant data, and completed data collection forms are kept
up-to-date and stored during the study and afterwards ~ REB/IRB
4. Supervisor
…of all individuals working on the study
Coordinate the research team
Ensure that team complies with all agency, institutional rules and regulations
The Research Process: 12 steps
1. Identify the research topic, idea, or problem that’s right for you
2. The literature search: What’s already out there?
3. Define the problem
Define what it is you want to study by preparing a problem statement: who, what,
when, where
4. Develop the research question
Types of questions we can ask
Descriptive questions
Identify key features and characteristics of a population of interest
Difference questions
How are sub-groups different from others?
Relationship questions
Determine…the degree to which two or more variables covary or are
associated with each other
How to develop the best possible question
PICO: Patient (middle-aged men)/ Problem (obesity), Intervention
(diet&exercise), Comparison (diet only, exercise only, or nothing), Outcomes
(weight&waist circumference loss)
PICO (T): +Timeframe (six-month trial)
3 other consideration:
Operationally definite any terms: physical, mental, social health?
Which aspect of mental health? Anxiety disorder, what qualifies in
your study as a …?
Note study limitation: cross-sectional surveys cannot infer causality
Delimitation… so narrow the study to fit the FINER approach
The FINER approach: research questions should be
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Document Summary

A systematic enquiry that aims to generate new scientific knowledge: generates new ideas; original, advances knowledge, leads to new insights, builds on work of others, systematic, repeatable. The role of the researcher: study-specific responsibilities, develop the research question, select a study design, ensure that the study is ethically sound *** Research ethics board reb or institutional review board irb: To ensure the safety and well-being of the individuals participating in the research study. Risks; risks vs. benefits; subject selection; informed consent; and safety and privacy: data collection phase, data analysis, prepare the study findings, repeat, administrative responsibilities, establish a budget. Realistic, feasible, and based on funds allocated: timeline or schedule. Start and end dates of the study. Any milestones that need to be met: record-keeping. Financial statements, participant data, and completed data collection forms are kept up-to-date and stored during the study and afterwards ~ reb/irb: supervisor. Of all individuals working on the study.

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