LBST 307 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fledge, Orlando Patterson, Net.

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LBST 307 Key Terms
Week 2 Readings
Charles Anthony Smith & Heather M Smith (2010) Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects
of United Nations Intervention. IN International Political Science Review
Introduction
Looks at the UN involvement in Kosovo, Haiti, and Sierra Leone
Argues that UN involvement has the unfortunate and unintended effect of increasing
the rates of human trafficking in these crisis areas while also the force determines the
magnitude of the increase in human trafficking
Definitions
Smuggling: the method by which people are moved across borders
Trafficking: a more complex set or processes involving labor exploitation in the
destination country.
Emergence of Human Sex Trafficking Rings
Some argue than human trafficking is considered simply a morally suspect business
hile othe eliees its a iteatioal ie.
Recent research relies on how human trafficking is a violation to human rights
From an economic perspective individuals believe human trafficking occurs in response
to a demand.
Effects on United Nations Intervention on Civil Crises
Its agued that the UN iteetio is ofte ieffetie eause thee ofte late o
the issues at hand
UN loses interests once the conflict becomes threatening
Promotes a false peace that leads to the reoccurrence of issues, in which they intervene
but fail to help combatants
Limitations to Both Literatures
One issue is the general human trafficking literature suffers from data limitations that
prevent rigorous theory testing.
The othe issue is the lage aout of duatio oieted data aout UN iteetios
led researchers to focus on conflict duration.
Thees also a issue ith olletig epiial data hile people ioled o oeseeig
human trafficking often have an incentive to not fully document or report the issue.
Link Between Human Trafficking and UN Intervention
Feel that theres an issue with how the UN intervention is understudied when it comes
to its ipats o the host out though ost ad othe issues
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They examine the ways in which the introduction to global peacekeeping force may
alter domestic demand and create conditions for the introduction and expansion of a
market in the trading of humans.
Any factor that serves to increase domestic demand for prostitution will lea to
expansion of human sex trafficking rings.
Foreign military presence is a large understudied factor that influences sex trafficking
1. observation that supports the theory is that foreign soldiers and ancillary support
networks that surround them use prostitutes.
. The UN ol iteees hee thees ot a lot of ilita iteetio, so as a effect
hee thees a lage ilita pesee thees also a lage aout of uegulated se
trafficking occurring.
3. Also any UN presence also increases the occurrence of international human
trafficking entrepreneurs in which criminals will migrate their business elsewhere.
Hypothesis:
UN peacekeeping force into a crisis area will serve to increase the rate of human
trafficking into that crisis area. As additional military personnel are bought in, some will
seek out prostitutes.
Where the UN force begins with a large number of troops, we should witness a dramatic
increase in human trafficking, where UN sends in a relatively smaller force we would
expect to see a small increase.
Kosovo Case Study
March 1998 Hostility between the Serbian Military Police, the Yugoslav Federal Army,
and the Kosovo Liberation Army, were critically high.
Serbian military police massacred 12k Kosovar Albanians, which led to more than 230k
people being displaced and protests
March-June 1999 NATO conducted a bombing campaign against Serb Forces which led
to a large peacekeeping force entering Kosovo after the campaigned ended.
KFO‘ as set ude the NATOs authoit to poide puli safet, eif that KLA ad
Serb forces had been disarmed and diminish hostilities.
June to August troops that entered went from 20k to 40k and peaked at 50k troops
Iitiall thee ast a high taffikig issue i Kosoo as it ast epoted
Following the arrival of international community in Kosovo in 1999 there was a large
increase in the sex industry based on trafficked women and girls in which 80% of the
clients were internationals
From 1999- thee ast uh etio aout hua taffikig ut   thee
as a epoted taffikig isis i thei old epot.
Haiti Case Study
Flawed presidential elections in Haiti caused an uproar within the country
2002 2003 dropped from 146th to 150th o the UN Deelopet Pogaes Hua
Development Ranking
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The gots iailit to diiish doesti iolee, idespead poet, ad the
introduction of a foreign military force created favorable conditions for human
trafficking
Feb. 2004 the Multiantional Interim Force (MIF) entere Haiti to maintain peace which
authorized the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti in April 2004 (MINUSTAH)
Prior to this oeet thee ast a epoted hua taffikig i Haiti
Hoee the U“ Depatet of “tate plae Haiti o its aual list as a Tie  out i
2001 that had Human trafficking issues, which goes to show come data can be
misleading as Haiti didt epot this issue
2007 reported Haiti as a special case in which it was noted that women were being
trafficked into Haiti form the Dominican Republic to serve UN Peacekeepers
The increase in violence against women and human trafficking in Haiti supports their
first hypothesis
Human trafficking problem developed in Haiti after 2004, it was less dramatic when
compared to Kosovo because only 9000 troops entered Haiti compared to 50k in Kosovo
Sierra Leone
According to the testimony peacekeeps are among the highest paying customers for
commercial sex, offering from US $5 - $300, in which women pressured by poverty often
engage in this act.
Nepal
I Nepal thee hast ee a UN iteetio ad as a esult thees still hua
trafficking but there hast ee a iease i the doesti osuptio sie thees
not international intervention.
Introduction to Human Trafficking: Definitions and Prevalence by Mary C. Burke
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, is the primary
legal instrument used to combat transnational organized crime.
They have 3 protocols which consists of :
o The Protocol to Prevent
o The Protocol to Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women
and Children
o The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms
Espeiall Woe ad Childe Potool defies Hua Taffkig as, Trafficking in
persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of
persons, by means of the threat or force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of
fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability or of the
giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having
control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include,
at a mini- mum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or
the removal of organs.
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