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Ch 15 -Stress, Coping, and Health

by OneClass60751 , Spring 2014
7 Pages
65 Views
Spring 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
Sherri Atwood

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Ch 15 Stress, Coping, and Health
Nature of stress
View stress in 3 ways: a stimulus, a response, and an organism-enviro interaction
Stressors: eliciting stimuli or events that place strong demands on us
°can be physical or psychological stimuli; 3 types: all affect psychological and physical well-being
°microstressors: everyday hassles like school work , family relations, work
°catastrophic events: unexpected, affects large groups of people like war, natural disasters…
°major negative events: being the victim of a crime/sexual abuse, death of a loved one, career fail,
illnesses
Stress has responses: cognitive, physio, and behavioural
°Or response: Personal-situation interaction/transaction between organism and enviro
Stress: pattern of cognitive appraisals, physio responses, and behavioral tendencies that occurs in
response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and resources needed to cope with
them
Researchers rely on victim’s self-report when measuring stress; life event scales: link b/w event and
well-being
Early theorists believed any life event that requires adaptation (negative or positive in nature), is a
stressor but now only see negative events as a stressor
4 aspects in Stress response:
°Appraisal/evaluation of demands of the situation (primary appraisal)
°Appraisal of resources available to cope with (secondary appraisal)
°Judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be
°Appraisal of the personal meaning of what the outcome might imply about us
Primary appraisal: you are about to have an important job interview
°Depends on: demands (difficulty of interview) and significance of the well-being (how bad you need
the job), and your perceived ability to cope with the situation (resources available to deal with)
Secondary appraisal: coping resources include knowledge, abilities, verbal skills, social resources
(people who will give you emotional support and encouragement)
Potential consequences: of failing to cope successfully with the situation, including seriousness of the
consequence and likelihood that they will occur (may over/underestimate the seriousness of the
situation)
Psychological meaning: related to your beliefs about yourself/the world (feelings of self-worth depend
on how successful you are in the situation…you may believe in doing poorly during the interview and
you’re a failure)
As soon as we make appraisals, our body responds to them, or vice versa (eg: you appraise situation
as a threat in the starttremble when you enter vs you enter tremblingappraise the situation as
threatening)
General adaptation syndrome (GAS): physio response pattern to strong and longed stressors
°Consists 3 phases: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
°Animals show a rapid increase in physio arousal: alarm reaction occur b/c of sudden activation of
sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones by endocrine system (this reaction
helps body deal with stress)—activation of sympathetic system: more O2, pupil dilates=better
vision…
°Encodcrine/hormonal stress response: perception of threat leads to messages from
hypothalamuspituitary glandadrenal glandshormones (esp cortisol: increase blood
sugar,and O2may lead to depression and anxiety disorders)
We are more sensitive to visual stimuli, movement is faster and stronger, injury is less likely to generate
movement-limiting swellings; your body is primed and ready to act
Parasympathetic nervous system occur to reduce arousal (attempt to reach homeostasis)
°But if still stressed, parasympathetic may mute symapathetic arousal (resistance)(exhaustion)
Resistance: body’s resources continue to mobilize so the person can function despite the
presence of stressor; how long resistance last depends on severity of stress, individual health,
and available emotional support
Exhaustion: occur if stressor is intense and persists too long; body’s resources are dangerously
depleted
Increase vulnerability to diseases, collapse, even death
Stress and health
Effects on psychological well being: especially in catastrophic life eventspsychological disorders
Rape trauma syndrome: women still fear another attack even after months after the trauma (report
decrease in sexual activity

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Description
Ch 15 Stress Coping and HealthNature of stressView stress in 3 ways a stimulus a response and an organismenviro interactionStressors eliciting stimuli or events that place strong demands on uscan be physical or psychological stimuli 3 types all affect psychological and physical wellbeingmicrostressors everyday hassles like school workfamily relations workcatastrophic events unexpected affects large groups of peoplelike war natural disastersmajor negative events being the victim of a crimesexual abuse death of a loved one career fail illnessesStress has responses cognitive physio and behavioural Or response Personalsituation interactiontransaction between organism and enviroStress pattern of cognitive appraisals physio responses and behavioral tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and resources needed to cope with themResearchers rely onvictims selfreport when measuring stress life event scales link bw event and wellbeingEarly theorists believed any life event that requires adaptation negative or positive in nature is a stressor but now only see negative events as a stressor4 aspects in Stress response Appraisalevaluation of demands of the situation primary appraisalAppraisal of resources available to cope with secondary appraisalJudgments of what the consequences of the situation could beAppraisal of the personal meaning of what the outcome might imply about usPrimary appraisal you are about to have an important job interviewDepends on demands difficulty of interview and significance of the wellbeing how bad you need the job and your perceived ability to cope with the situation resources available to deal withSecondary appraisal coping resources include knowledge abilities verbal skills social resources people who will give you emotional support and encouragement
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