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Midterm

PSYC 109W Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hindsight Bias, Yield Sign, Suggestibility


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 109W
Professor
Owen Thomas
Study Guide
Midterm

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Psyc109 Midterm Review (leture2-5)
1.Hindsight bias (I knew it all along)
Definition:
the tendency for people to suggest they could have predicted an outcome after the event has
occurred.
2.Psychology is a science!
Empirical! Knowledge is provisional!
Theories, Hypothesis, experiments
3.Five factors effect perception
•familiarity •stress •duration •condition •perceptual abilities
4.problems can occur in which phase?
Perception + Storage + retrieval
5.Factors for post-event storage
forgetting
-passage of time (The Forgetting Curve, performance/Time)
Enhancing memory (1975)
-Loftus 一个短片一分钟 一辆车转右,stop sign 造成五车追尾,被问了 10 个问题包括有和无 stop sign,
53% vs 35%
Compromising memory (1977)
-Loftus 30 pics 绿车开过没有停下,一半人被问:车有没有颜色(绿或蓝),一半被问与颜色无关的问
题。然后问车轮毂颜色和 pass by 的车的颜色 被问有关颜色的人会偏向于选蓝绿色,没被问的偏向于
pure green
Introducing False Objects into Memory (1978)
-同样的 30 pic,一半人看到 stop sign 一半人看到 yield sign

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Paradigm
-Storage Phaseask Unbiased questions
Stimulus
biasing information
Distractor Task----Time elapse
Test
-Retrieval Phase: ask Biased questions
Stimulus
Distractor Task----Time elapse
Test
6.Retrieval
Question-wording can have substantial influence on reported memory
-Loftus and Zanni
“did u see15% / the broken7% headlight?” (There was none!)
“How fast were the cars going when they smashed40.8/collided39.3/bumped 38.1/hit34.0 each other?”
Confidence
Predictors of accuracy
Reluctance to says “I don’t know.”
7.Moral
-memory is not static, but reconstructive and malleable.
-people do not know whether they are accurate or not
-Implications for interviewing and questioning (e.g., leading questions)
8.Why suspect confess?
-Internal pressure
-External pressure
-Perceptual of proof (嫌犯相信证据强)
Other factors: Age, Type of offence, Prior Convictions, Access to legal advice
9.Interrogation Techniques (how to get information from someone)
Step1: Direct Positive Confrontation
Step2: Theme Development
Step3: Handling Denials
Step4: Overcoming Objective
Step5: Procurement and retention of suspect’s attention
10.Emotion/Non-emotional Suspect
-Emotion suspects: Minimization Technique
Minimization Definition:
Reduce the perceived seriousness of the offence
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