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Midterm review from Lecture Notes

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PSYC 210
Cathy Mc Farland

PSYC 210 MIDTERM REVIEW In-class notes Lecture 2: January 16, 2012 SCALES Classify Order Equal True distances zero Nominal X Ordinal X X Interval X X X Ratio X X X X Summation Notation - = X1+ X 2 X +3… + X N ↑i = 1  lower limit of the summation Algebraic Rules of Summation - Summary of the constant o The sum of k occurrences of constant c o K = # of constants; k times the constant o = c + c + c + … + c = kc o This is just simple multiplication but they're trying to make it look complicated - Summing cX o The sum of the k products, where each product is obtained by multiplying a constant by the score on the variable =equals= the constant times the sum of the variable o = cX1+ cX 2 … + cX k = c (X1+ X2+ … + X k = c - Distributive laws over addition & subtraction - the summation operator can be distributed across variables or constants when they are added or subtracted from one another BUT Sum of products not generally equal to product of sums ≠ ( )( ) Displaying Data - Raw Data or Data Scores – the scores obtained from sampling units before the scores are analyzed statistically - Frequency Distribution – a set of possible values of a variable in a dataset, along with the count of how often each value occurs - Frequency of occurrence – the number of cases in a sample with scores at a specified value - Relative frequency (fR) – the proportion of the sample with scores at a specified value, then multiplied by a hundred o fR = N is the total # of people in t
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