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PSYC 241-FALL 2010-Midterm Notes

11 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 241
Shannon Zaitsoff

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PSYCH241MIDTERM I REVIEWMethods for Defining AbnormalityPsychological Abnormality refers to behavior speech or though that impairs the ability of a person to function in a way that is generally expected of him or her in the context where the unusual functioning occursMental Illness same meaning but more of a medical cause than a psychological oneStatistical Conceptfrequency of behavior or thought defines abnormalityPersonal Distress frequent but not essential feature of abnormalityPersonal Dysfunction failures of internal mechanisms to perform naturally selected functionsViolation of Norms culturally relative acceptableunacceptableDiagnosis by an Expert Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIVTR International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders ICD10DSMIVTR A Multiaxial ApproachDSMIII published by the American Psychiatric Association very brief contained vague descriptions of the diagnostic categories only 106 categories compared to the currents 407 focused on internal and unobservable processesDSMIIIIIIR more empirically based atheoretical moved away from endorsing any one theory of abnormal psychology becoming more practical more precise behavioral descriptions polythetic an individual can meet diagnostic criteria wo having all of the symptoms listed multiaxial providing additional information regarding individuals functioning in five different areasDSMIVIVR comprehensive literature reviews reanalysis of old data sets addition of new dataDescription of the Five AxesAxis I what the patient has major mental disorders mood disorders eating disorders schizophrenia bizarre nature ex anorexia nervosa disorderAxis II what the patient is personality disorders and mental retardation less severe longterm disturbances ex obsessivecompulsive disorderAxis III relevant medical conditions may cause psychological disorders ex diabetes type Iinsulin dependentAxis IV relevant life circumstances recognizing that individuals live within a social environment and that stressful social circumstances might contribute to symptom onset single woman vs married woman may have the same diagnosis but different treatment ex inadequate social supportAxis V general functioning with the circumstances related to his or her problems ex GAF Global Assessment of Functioning49 serious symptoms like suicidal ideation obsessional rituals or serious impairment in social occupational or school functioningIssues of Reliability and ValidityDiscrete vs Continuum DSM categorical an individual has the disorder or not no inbetween does not recognize continuum between normal and abnormaldimensional approach for disorders ranging from nonexistent or mildtosevere however it is hard to determine how many dimensions per disorder and scoringassessment proceduresReliability and Validity must give the same measurement each time used and should measure what its supposed to measureinterrater reliability the extent to which 2 clinicians agree on the diagnosis of a particular patientconcurrent validity the ability of the diagnostic category to relate in the expected way to factors associated with the disorderpredictive validity the ability to predict the course of the disorderGender Bias still exists argument that the descriptions in the DSM make it more likely that women will be diagnosed even when no pathology exists exaggerated female stereotypesCultural Bias DSM specifies that individuals symptoms should be interpreted in the context of their social and cultural reference groupProcess Issues too often influenced by factors other than pure empiricismModelsTheories1 Biological Modelsstructural damage to the brain direct head injuries diseases andor toxinsneurotransmitters chemical chemical messengers that are released from the propagating neuron and move through the synapse to the postsynaptic neurondopamine pleasure seeking serotonin constraint or behavior inhibititor norepinephrine gamma aminobutryic acid GABA 1 too muchlittle of the neurotransmitter producedreleased into the synapse 2 too fewmany receptors on the dendrites 3 excessdeficit in the amount of the transmitterdeactivating substance in the synapse 4 too rapidslow reuptake process behaviorneurotransmitters brain plasticity 2way street persons response to environmental events play a part in causing abnormal functioningbrain plasticity the ability of intact brain cells to compensate for damaged cells and take over their functionautonomic nervous system controls bodily functions such as breathing heart rate digestion etc PNS and SNS function cooperatively to produce homeostasissympathetic nervous system readies the body for action fight or flight response increasing heart rate pupil size breathing
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