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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 250
Professor
Sherri Atwood
Semester
Spring

Description
PSYC250Chapter7LanguagedevelopmentWhatislanguageLinguistFocusonformalpropertiesandrulesgrammaticalstructurePragmaticslanguageusecompetencemeaningHowweuselanguageingivensituationshowweconstructmeaninghowtoimplicateandinfermeaningAskapsycholinguistBrainprocessingwherehowwhenwhoagerelatedMappingApproachestolanguagedevelopmentBiologicalNeurolinguisticswhereinthebrainlanguageprocessingtakesplaceMappinglanguageacquisitiontobrainareasLinguisticorNativistViewsinnatelinguisticknowledgeExposurehonesinnateknowledgeLearningTheorynoinnateknowledgeoflanguageBrainisbiasedpreparedforlanguagebutchildrenlearnbyimitationparentalreinforcementSocialpragmaticViewsDevelopmentalbrainispreparedforlanguagebutlanguagedevelopmentisasocialprocessandagradualoneFocusonsharedknowledgeculturalnormsandcontextoflanguageuseillustratessomeapproachestolanguageLearningtheorywhichfocusesonlearningthroughselectivecognitionprocessingrecallimitationandmodelingAtbroadestlevelbiologicalviewsaresometimesreferredtoasnativistviewSocialviewstendtobedevelopmentinnatureandpragmaticviewssuchasmichealtomaselloshasanevolutionaryaspectaswellasasocialcognitiveaspectPragmaticsinnthisarearefertopracticalusesoflanguageandintentionaluseoflanguageSopragmaticsfocusesonlanguageuseandlinguisticviewsmoreonlanguagestructureorformNowpragmaticsisabranchoflinguisticsforsurebutingenerallinguisticslooksatmoreformalaspectsoflanguageitsgrammaticalstructureandsoforthSopragmaticsisthestudyofrelationshipbetweenacquiringlanguageineverydaylifeandthewayweuselanguagetoaccomplishgoalsRelatedtothesocialpragmaticviewisthenotionofconstructivismwhichisperspectivethatsuggeststhatweconstructknowledgesayoflanguagethroughindividualandsocialactivitiesandalsobybeingaparticipantinthewidercultureTheideahereisthatalthoughwearewallbornintothecontextsayofalanguageEnglishKoreanFrenchwemustparticipateineverydaylifeinordertodeveloptheskillsthatpertaintothatlanguageAndwedothisbydoingthingswithotherpeopleSopragmaticsandconstructivismcangotogetherSomoresocialorientedresearchersgenerallytaketheviewthatalthoughtheinfantisbiologicallyequippedforlearningandusinglanguagewearebornwiththenecessaryphysicalapparatusandarebrainsandmindsarelanguagecapablewestillrequirethesomereasontolearnanduselanguageandtheneedtosociallyinteractwithothersseemstobeonecompellingreasonInterestinglywithadvancedimagingtechniquesevenbiofolksarestartinguntanglethecomplexrelationshipthatbiologyandthesocialhaveLearningViewSkinnerparentsproducereinforcingbehaviorsegencouragementgiveattentiontoandthesereinforcersresultinthebabyreproducingthesesoundsParentswillreinforceonlythosesoundsthatbestapproximatetheactualsoundSkinnerarguedthatparentsreinforcewhatwewillcallthetargetsoundsthatchildrenhearwhenparentspositivelyreinforcethecorrectsoundsthenchildrenaremoreinclinedbeormakelikelytoacttomakethosesoundsagainThegreatestapprovalgoestothesoundsthatsoundmostlikeactualwordsorprecursorstowordsBanduraChildlearnslanguageprimarilythroughimitationobservationallearningChildrenarereinforcedbutalsogeneralizeapplieswhattheyhavelearnedtonewsituationsandlearnsinappropriateuseofwordsandphrasesBandurasaidthatchildrenlearnlanguagemostlythroughimitationorobservationallearningTheparentsreinforcessoundsthatarewordlikewithpraiseandthechildwillapplythesesoundstonewsituationsofthesoundwordfitsthesituationthechildispraisedandifnotthewordisnotreinforcedProblemswithlearningtheorytherewouldbetoomanyinstancesofreinforcementrequiredParentsgivepositivefeedbackforthingssaidcorrectlybutalsoifwhatchildsaysistrueratherthancorrectchildrenseemtobeabletosayutterancessomethingsaidnotheardbeforenoveltyproblemcantexplainactiveconstructionsoverpassiveortheactivenatureoflearningalanguageFirstthenumberofstimulusresponseconnectionsthatisspecificlinkagesbetweenababysvocalizationandaparentsreinforcingresponsethatwouldbeneededtoexplainlanguageeventhelanguageofaveryyoungchildissoenormousthatachildcouldnotacquireallofthemeveninalifetimenottomentionafewshortyearsSecondnaturalisticstudiesofparentchildinteractionailtosupportthelearningtheoryaccountForexamplemothersarejustaslikelytorewardtheirchildrenfortruthfulbutgrammaticalincorrectstatementsastheyaretoreinforcethechildrenforgrammaticallycorrectutterancesParentsareconcernedtoteachtheirchildrenacceptablebehavioraswellascorrectlanguageItisdifficulttoseethenhowadultreinforcementalonemightaccountforthechildslearningofgrammarProblem2isthatlanguageiscreativeandchildrenoftenrespondinwaysthatsuitthesituationdontjustapplywhattheyhaveheardbeforeProblem3isthatimitationwouldmeanthatchildrenwouldlearnvariousgrammaticalconstructionaspertheirnativelanguageandthesewouldvaryCrossculturallystudiesrevealmoreofauniversalpatternwhereinchildrenlearnactiveconstructionsbeforepassiveonesmomisgoingtothestoretobuymilkbeforethemilkwasboughtbymomProblem4ThelearningviewseeschildrenasmorepassivethanactiveinthatchildreninternalizewhattheyhearratherthanchildrenareactivecoconstructersoflanguageThatischildrenplayaroleintheirownlearningolanguagetheytryoutwordsfigureouttheydoordontworkontheirownanduselanguageforeffect0togetgoalsmetChomskyLanguageisinbornnotimitatedrejectslearningtheoryrichknowledgeofgrammarcannotbeattainedbycorrectlinguisticinputchildrenhearorcorrectionearlytheoryalllanguagesshareacommonunderlyingsetofprinciplesanunderlyinggrammaruniversalgrammarInfantsareprewiredforthisuniversalgrammarchildrencomebiologicallypreparedtodealwiththisuniversalaspectoflanguageChildrenhaveinnatementallanguagecomputationalprocessorcalledalanguageacquisitiondeviceLADthatconstrainsthevastpossibilitiesofgrammarconstructionNativistsarguesthatthehumanchildisbiologicallypredisposedtoacquirehumanlanguageFollowingthisassumptionnativistscontendthatbecauselanguageabilityisaninheritedspeciesspecificcharacteristicalllanguageofthespeciesmustdisplayuniversalfeaturesthatistheymustsharecertainbasiccharacteristicsByexaminingfeaturessuchasthesoundsusedinspeakingthewaywordsareorganizedinsentencesandhowmeaningisdeterminedinvariouslanguagesinvestigatorshaveconcludedhatasetofcommonprinciplesdoesunderlieallhumanlanguagesForinstancespeakersofalllanguagescreateavastnumberofspokenwordsbycombiningarelativelysmallsetofthepossiblevocalsoundshumanscanmakeFinallyalllanguageshavegrammarsandnativistsclaimthatthesegrammarssharecertainformalpropertiesaswellegthesubjectpredicaterelationshipNativistspointoutthatinmanydifferentculturesnormalchildrenacquirelanguagerelativelyquicklyandlearnitwellEveninsituationsinwhichchildrenreceivefragmentedandincompleteenvironmentalinputchildrencanlearnalanguageThusnativistsarguethatthechildmustbebiologicallypreparedtoacquirelanguageNativistoftenpointtothepossibilityofaninnatepredispositionforlanguagebystudyingchildrenwhoacquirelanguageevenwithrestrictedinput
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