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Ch 14 biological rhythms.doc

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 14 biological rhythms sleep and dreamingSleeping and waking different stagesElectrooculography EOG brain activity of eye movementsElectromyography EMG brain activity of muscle tension2 classes of sleep slowwave sleep SWS and rapideyemovement sleep REMDesynchronized EEG beta activity mixture of different high frequencies with low amplitude Alpha rhythm 812 Hz that occurs during relaxed wakefulnessVertex spikes drowsiness time spent in alpha rhythm decreases EEGsmall amplitude irregular frequencyBeginning of stage 1 sleep slowing of heart rate reduction of muscle tension eyeballs roll slowlySleep spindles Stage 2 sleepK complexes waves of 1214 Hzperiodic burts If awakened during the first 2 stages they deny that they were asleepStage 3 sleep delta waves large amplitude very slow waves delta waves are more presentDuring SWS neighbouring cortical neurons have synchronized activity as if theyre all chanting togetherAfter an hour it returns to stage 2 as a pattern of smallamplitude highfrequency activity similar to an awake person but the skeletal muscles are relaxed and limplying active EEF with deeply relaxed muscleREM sleepmuscle state show intense brain activity during REM bc brainstem regions are inhibiting motorneuronswhere you can experience vivid dreamsparadoxical sleepHow much we sleep and whenyoung adults 78 hrs about half in stage 2 REM20 of total sleep cycles of 90110min recurring 4 or 5 times per night Cycles early in nightgreater amounts of stage 3 SWS and latter half of nightless stage 3REMoccur more in later cycles longest40min brief arousal may occur after REM may shift postureAt puberty circadian rhythm of sleep shifts in most people so they naturally get up later in the day but school systems require students to come to school earlier in the day when they hit adolescence REM sleepDreams can occur during other stagesdreamsthinking type not only in REM where theres visual imageryNightmares lomg frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper from REM sleepNight terrors sudden arousal from stage 3 SWS marked by fear and autonomic activation no vivid dreams but remember sense of crushing feeling on the chest as if suffocating Manipulating sleep reveals an underlying structureSleep is affected by enviro social and biologicalSleep deprivation seriously alters sleep patternsit makes us sleepySleep recovery process of sleeping more than normal after a period of sleep deprivationEffects of sleep deprivationCreates bizarre behavior and schizophrenia from functional roles of dreamsnot for schizos thobehaviors hallucinations irritability lack of concentration disoriented depend on personality and agemay get bizarre behaviors with just 6 or 4 hrs of sleep for 2 weeks may say theyre not feeling sleepy but performance is impairedsleep deprivation in mammals affect immune systemdeathcycle gene part of the circadian molecular clocksleep recovery Example 11 days of sleep deprivationfirst night of sleep recovery stage 3 is different from normal too high
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