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Ch 16 Psychopathology.doc

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 16 PsychopathologyMood disorders are a major psychiatric categoryDepression unhappy mood no interestsenergyappetite no concentration restless agitation pessimistic can lead to suicideUnipolar depression depression that alters with normal emotional stateslittle stressBipolar depression manicdepressive illness repeated fluctuation bw depressioneuphoric positive mania mood Inheritance of depressionConcordance of monozygotic identical twins60 dizygotic twins fraternal20Higher rates of ddepression in biological depressed parentsLike schizophrenia there is no certain depression genebut many genes contribute that develops into depressionBrain changes with depressionDepressionhigh blood flow greater activity in prefrontal cortex and amygdalaLow blood flow in parietal and posterior temporal cortexand in anterior cingulatedSevere depressionthinner cortex in the right hemispherevulnerable to depressionHippocampus volume is reducedreduced memory tasksTreatment for depressionElectroconvulsive shock therapy ECT seizurescant treat schizo but can reverse severe depressionMonoamine hypothesis depression is caused by low activity of monoamine transmitters serotonin dop norepinephrine by antidepressants MAO monoamine oxidase inhibitors enzymebreaks down monoamine transmittersMAO inhibitors raise monoamines in synapsesdepressed pple dont get stimulation at those synapsesExplains why drug reserpine reduce norpinephrine and serotonin in braincan cause depressionTricyclics class of antidepressants inhibit reuptake of monoamines boost serotonin Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIsprozacantidepressants better than MAO inhibitorstryclicsfew side effectsSSRIs increase neurogenesis in hippocampus which mediates mood effects of drugs increases production of brain steroids like allopregnanolone which gives effectiveness of SSRIs by stiumulating GABA receptors and reduce anxietyBut theres probs with the theory that reduced serotonindepressionSSRI drugs increase synaptic serotonin but it takes weeks of SSRI treatment before pple get betterSo its the brains response to the increased synaptic serotoin that relieves the depressive symptosSO boosting serotonin may help people to treat depression other factors in brain may be involvedSSRIs increase risk of suicidevariety of overthecounter drugs may mix with other drugs to push serotonin levels too high triggering serotonin syndrome confusion muscle spasm feverGlutamate receptor antagonist ketamine relieves depression instantly a hormone secreted by fat cellsVagal nerve stimulation electrodes wrapped around vagus nerve in neck and stimulate small electrical shocks
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