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Psyc 365 Final review Ch9 Health and Physical Activity

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 365
David Cox

Psyc 365 Ch9 – Health and Physical Activity Sport psychology - Study of influence of psychological factors on sport behaviour Exercise Psychology - Study of influence that sport and exercise have on one’s psychology and behaviour Definition of exercise - Some call it “lesure activity”, therefore physical activity that is considered a part of work it would not be considered exercise - Others have argued that physical activity is the expenditure of energy, regardless of the intention or purpose - Gauvin et al described four parameters of physical activity: o Type  Physiological systems ued in activity (aerobic, strength, endurance, etc) o Frequency  How much activity is performed over time period o Intensity  Load imposed on physiological systems by activity o Duration  Temporal length of activity Physical fitness - Physiological functioning and attributes that influences ability to perform physical activity Sport - Activity that involves rules or limits, a sense of history, an aspect of winning and losing, and an emphasis on physical exertion in context of competition Health Illness Continuum - Death, Illness, Health, Perfect Health - Each point as five components: o Mental, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health - Wellness would be a balance of all components Active vs Passive Leisure - Active Leisure o Positive experience associated with activities such as hobbies, playing instrument, and exercise - Passive Leisure o Positive experience associated with a lack of activity (listening to music, daydreaming, etc) - When people engage in active leisure they tend to be more happy, motivated, concentrated, and more often in flow Levels of physical activity - Recommended that we should have at least 30 mins of moderate exercise/day - 50% of those who began a structured exercise program discontinued it within 6 months - Fewer children in 2005 participated in sports than in 1992 o Parents cited cost of participation, and lack of convenient facilities as top reasons Five Forms of Physical Activity - Isometric Exercise o Contracting muscle against an immovable object without body movement - Isotonic exercise o Exercise that uses weights to place tension on a muscle through shortening or lengthening of the muscle - Isokenetic exercise o Places tension on a muscle group through a complete range of motion - Anaerobic exercise o Exercise such as sprinting in which intense effort is xpended over a short period of time, resulting in an oxygen debt - Aerobic exercise o Exercise such as jogging that involves the increased consumption of oxygen for an extended period of time Psychological benefits of physical activity - There are problems with finding empirical relationship between psychological health and physical activity o One issue is the choice of experimental and control groups o It is difficult to control for starting point levels of fitness and happiness o A group excluded from participation in exercise is not necessarily the best control for a group that is provided with constant support for continuing exercise o Therefore evaluation of change is difficult using standard clinical measures - However there is increasing body of evidence to support correlation btw physical activity and improvements in psychological health - Physical fitness training results in improved mood, work behaviour, and self concept - Self concept o Self esteem and self concept linked to exercise. o Perceptions of self - Self Efficacy o An individual’s perception of his or her ability to succeed at a particular task at a specific time o It is not concerned with the skills one has, but judgments of what one can do with whatever skills one does possess o different than self confidence . Which is a global trait associated with overall performance expectations. Also confidence can be negative (confident I will lose this game), whereas self-efficacy is always positive. o Given required skills and appropriate incentives, self-eficacy will predict actual performance o Four sources of efficacy expectations:  Performance accomplishments  Most influential source of self-efficacy. Success increases self- efficacy, failure decreases it. Although factors such as perceived difficulty of task, effort expended, adverse external circumstances, and temporal sequencing of events affect the strength of the relationship  (eg. Even if initial setbacks decrease self-efficacy, overcoming them can lead to even higher than usual self-efficacy)  Vicarious experience  Gained through observing or visualizing others perform a skill can alert one to their own abilities and raise their sense of self-efficacy  Verbal Persuasion  Persuade others or ourselves that capability exists to achieve a desired outcome  If verbal persuasion fails it can have adverse effects on self efficacy  Emotional arousal  Lease powerful source of self efficacy, physiological state  High levels of arousal may be perceived as debilitating and predictive of failure and result in decrease of self efficacy.  Either anxiety or excitement - Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning o Improvement in cognitive functioning can be due to exercise, until the duration or intensity of exercise increases, at which time the effect will be negated by muscle fatigue o Exercise can reduce trait anxiety o Exercise is good for non-clinical depression and has more benefits than risks for clinical depression Adherence to physical activity - Non-adherence o Failure to follow the advice of the health professional; inability to stay with an exercise program  few immediate rewards, environment can be unappealing, activities monotonous,lack of expertise may be obvious especially in social
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