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Health Psychology Final Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 365
David Cox

Health Psychology 365Final Textbook NotesTHE NATURE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITYSports psychology the study of the influence of psychological factors on sport behaviourmind to body relationshipapplied sports psychology interventions are effective in enhancing exercise activities Exercise psychology the study of the influencethat sport and exercise have on ones psychology and behaviourbody to mind relationship Gauvin and Spence define exercise as leisure activity as opposed to occupational physical activity undertaken with a specific external objective such as the improvement of fitnessPhysical activity the expenditure of energy either purposefully or without intention as a result of bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles as part of leisure or work activities Casperson Gauvin Levesque and Richardfour parameters of physical activity oType identifies the physiological systems that are used in a particular activity such as aerobic strength endurance etcoFrequency concerned with how much the activity is performed over a time periodoIntensity the load imposed on physiological systems by an activity ex strenuousnessoDuration temporal length of a particular activityoPurpose for physical activity to be meaningful it must have a purpose more meaningful than wanting to be physically fit or lose weight ex riding a bike to save gasCox Physical fitness physiological functioning including 1 cardiorespiratory endurance 2 muscular endurance 3muscular strength 4 body composition and flexibility that influences the ability to be physically activeSport an activity that involves rules or limits a sense of history an aspect of winning or losing an emphasis on physical exertion in the context of competition PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE FIVE COMPONENTS OF HEALTH Healthillness continuum 1 death 2 illness 3 health 4 perfect healthGreenberd and Pargman Five components of health 1 mental 2 physical 3 emotional 4 social 5 spiritualneed to be well rounded in all areas BALANCE is importantActive leisure a positive experiences that is associated with activities such as hobbies playing an musical instrument and exercisetend to be more happy motivated concentrated and more in the flow than any other part of the dayPassive leisure a positive experience that is associated with lack of activity ex listening to music or daydreamingLEVELS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Need 30 min of moderate exercise per daybut vigorous activity is better 50 if those who begin a structured exercise program quit in 6 months Half of the population is moderately active 48 are inactive increasingMen are more likely to be active than women activity decreases with age mostly due to declines in womens activitiesSES residents of BC Yukon Albertaexercise Those who are more physically active report lower levels of stress rate health as being good less high blood pressure less overweight 15 decrease in sportsmay be involved in exercise programs or physical activities such as jogging or walkingaging populationtime pressures careers child rearing andinterest in compTVin sports especially among young boysTHE FIVE FORMS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Isometric exercise contracting a muscle group against an immovable object without movement in the bodyimproves strength but not endurance Isotonic exercise exercise that uses weights to place tension on a muscle through the shortening or lengthening of a muscle group mostly in one directionovertime improves muscle strength and endurance Isokinetic exercise exercise that places tension on a muscle group through a complete range of motionAnaerobic exercise exercise such as sprinting in which intense effort is expended over a short period of time resulting in oxygen debtAerobic exercise exercise such as jogging that involves the increased consumption of oxygen over an extended period of timeis strenuous but does not result in an oxygen defecitthe sustained nature produces health benefits associated with it cardiovascular pulmonary and muscular system and improving bodys use of oxygenjogging swimming cycling skiing paced walking soccer hockey cross country skiing PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Helps cope with stress and raises mood ISSUES Initial health will affect the impact of exercise program and therefore the degree the results can be generalizedcontrol group is not equivalent because those in exercise group receive support to keep going high dropout rates evaluation of change is difficult because use measures of psychopathy rather than small measurements necessary Physical activity and a sense of self Physical activity improves ones self concept and self esteem perceptions of change may occur independently of changes with physical fitness Folkman and Syme Participation in an exercise program is strongly associated with feeling good about oneselfincreases in self esteem are larger for those who experienced actual increases in physical fitness Self efficacy an individuals perception of his or her ability to succeed at a particular task at a specific timeonly positiveinvolves the affirmation of performance capabilities oSelf efficacy is different from self confidence a global trait associated with overall performance expectationscan be positive or negative oSelf efficacy can predict actual performance oTranscendent accomplishments experiencing the upper reaches of performance achievementsovercoming physical barriers that had seemed insurmountableex mile under 4 minutes by Roger Bannister and John Landyafter they broke the record it was broken by any others because had broken a psychological barrier oSuccessful athletes believe in their ability to focus on the task and perform to the best of their ability in the situation they find themselvesdevelopment of resilient self efficacy BanduraFour sources of efficacy expectations oPerformance accomplishments actual experiences of mastery considered to be the most influential source of self efficacysuccess increases self efficacy and failure decreases it but take factors such as perceived difficulty effort expended adverse circumstances and temporal sequencing of events affects relationshipoVicarious experience experience that is gained through observing or visualizing others perform a skill which can alert one to ones own capabilities and raise ones sense of self efficacydetermination is derived from the belief that we will ultimately succeed
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