[REM 100] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 52 pages long Study Guide!

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REM 100
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Section 9a Climate Change
1. Define climate change and explain mechanisms of climate change (human and natural)
2. Explain the particular role gas emissions (GHGs) in climate
3. Summarize the expected change under different warming scenarios.
4. Identify the main international relating to climate change
5. Explain challenges of mitigating climate change
6. Know IPCC
Lei et al.  desie liate hage as a supe iked pole ad a poli taged eause:
Time is running out
Those who cause the problem also solution
The central authority needed to address it is weak or non-existent
Policy responses are short-sighted disout the futue i iatioal a.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Established in 1988 through UN Resolution 43/53
Open to all members of the UN and World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 195 countries are
currently members.
Consists of IPCC Panel, the secretariat and a series of working groups.
It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced
worldwide relevant to the under-standing of climate change.
Provide rigorous and balanced scientific information to decision makers (policy-relevant, yet policy-
neutral, never policy-prescriptive)
Climate is NOT Weather
Weather
Current state of the atmosphere (temp., rain, wind, sky cover)
Single events
what happens today
Climate
averaged weather over months, seasons, years
What you might expect to happen today
Climate change: Significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution (average and/or variability) of
weather patterns over long periods (years, decades, millennia)
Anthropogenic climate change: Climate change resulting from human activity (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions,
lad‐use change)
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Eah of the last thee deades has ee suessiel ae at the Eaths sufae tha a peedig deade
since 1850
Three ways to change the climate Radiative forcing (W/m
2
)
1. Changing the amount of incoming solar radiation (hard because at tu off su
2. Changing concentration of aerosols (particles in atmosphere that can trap heat) & GHGs
3. Changes in surface properties (surface albedo reflective capacity)
What changes the climate
Natural causes:
Sun: solar variability (sunspots), changing orbit of earth
Volcanic eruptions (put aerosols in the atmosphere)
Human causes:
Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs):
o Carbon dioxide (CO2)
o Methane (CH4)
o Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
o Halocarbons
Ozone (stratospheric and tropospheric)
Water vapour
Aerosols (minute particles in the atmosphere, from pollution, volcanoes)
“ufae aledo efletiit of eaths sufae due to lad use change)
Linear contrails (airplane emissions)
compare the relative impact of these factors
radiative forcing > one way to measure the amounts of warming that takes place as a result of these
individual factors
solar radiation is the only non-human (natural) one
CO2 is one of the main drivers of anthropocentric climate change
some factors can have both a cooling and a warming effect (i.e. halocarbons)
cooling effect is the result of the heat being reflected
just know general anthropogenic factors of climate change and that aerosols have a cooling effect
“eeal atue auses fo liate hage
MAIN IMPACT FO‘ ICE AGE“: Eaths oeet aoud the su hages i aout of sus adiatio
hitting earth
SMALLER, SHORT-TERM IMPACTS:
Volcanic eruptions dust and sulphate (1-2 yr effect)
Solar variability (sunspots) contributed to Little Ice age
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