[SA 150] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (57 pages long)

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SA 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Introduction to Sociology
Sociologists notice social patterns
oThey recognize that our personal experiences are affected by our class, ethnicity, gender, age, and
sexual orientation
Social patterns don’t always make sense or are fair
Sociological research enables us to discuss social issues in informed and critical manner
It allows us to challenge perceptions such as stereotypes
oEx: All politicians are corrupt
Why do people think this? Why do certain societies think this?
Sociologists investigate and challenge social patterns
Sociology as a Discipline
There is nothing natural about the boundaries between disciplines
Sociology shares common interests with other social sciences such as psychology, anthropology,
philosophy, social work, economics, and political science
However, it does distinguish itself from other disciplines through its history, vocabulary, and tools
oIt emerged through its history
What is Sociology?
Sociology is difficult to define
It is more productive to explain what sociology does
Sociology involves looking for and looking at social patterns in social variables, social institutions, and
Why Study Sociology?
It is useful to study sociology to achieve a greater understanding of
oThe social world
Social practices, attitudes, institutions
oOneself
How individuals relate to social patterns
oOthers in the multicultural context of Canada
The Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills coined the term sociological imagination
Non-conventional American sociologist who rode a motorcycle
Mills stated that the challenge of sociology is to make the connection between how society works and how
it works in terms of our personal lives
The sociological imagination helps us to understand the connections between the political and the personal
oIn many ways, they are interlinked
For Mills, the sociological imagination was a quality of mind that had 3 components
1. An understanding of history
2. An understanding of social structure
oInstitutions
3. An understanding of individual biographies
Mills was interested in public sociology
oPublic Sociology: Placing sociology into the public
Everyone can have the sociological imagination and use these qualities of mind
Mills was interested in writing
oIf you write in a clear manner, everyone can understand what is portrayed
Interested in narratives in tone
oNot just statistics
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oWanted to tell stories
James Agee
Mills was influenced by Agee
Agee was not a sociologist
He was a poet, writer, journalist
Mils called Agee’s work sociology poetry
Mills on Sociological Writing
Does not look good for two reasons
1. There is no real writing tradition in sociology as there is in history
oHistory was focused on narratives
2. The field is now split into statistical stuff and heavy duty theoretical bullshit
No writing, no one is being trained or have models to look up to
No aspiration to write well
The Development of Modern Sociology
Sociology emerged as an area of academic interest in Germany, France, and England during the 1800s
oIt developed as a response to dramatic social changes as a consequence of industrialization
oPopulation increases and urbanization were major social factors in the rise of sociology as a way
of studying the world
The Origins of Sociology
Ibn Khaldun, an Arab scholar, is increasingly thought of as the first sociologist, but he would not have
thought of himself that way
oSince sociology did not yet exist
In his book An Introduction to History, he examines various types of societies and their histories, cultures,
and economies
Khaldun developed a systematic approach to studying different types of societies such as tribes, cities,
notions and economies
oLook for social patterns
Auguste Comte 1798 – 1857
Comte is credited with coining the term sociology
Is often considered the founder of sociology
French philosopher
He called sociology the queen of the sciences
Herbert Spencer 1820 – 1903 British
Influenced by biologist Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution
Most people believe that Darwin coined the term survival of the fittest, but Spencer actually used the term
to justify social inequalities
Essentially it was his belief that those with wealth and power deserved it, because they were the fittest
members of society
If people were poor, it was their fault, they were unfit
Harriet Martineau 1802 – 1876 British
Often described as the first woman sociologist
Focused on economic, social, and historical spheres and their intersections
Translated many of Comte’s texts
oTranslation is a big part of how the discipline of sociology moves throughout the world
Karl Marx 1818 – 1883 German Philosopher
Marx along with Friedrich Engels, inspired modern communism
Marx believed that conflict grew from the division of social classes
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Document Summary

Sociologists notice social patterns: they recognize that our personal experiences are affected by our class, ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation. Social patterns don"t always make sense or are fair. Sociological research enables us to discuss social issues in informed and critical manner. It allows us to challenge perceptions such as stereotypes: ex: all politicians are corrupt. There is nothing natural about the boundaries between disciplines. Sociology shares common interests with other social sciences such as psychology, anthropology, philosophy, social work, economics, and political science. However, it does distinguish itself from other disciplines through its history, vocabulary, and tools: it emerged through its history. It is more productive to explain what sociology does. Sociology involves looking for and looking at social patterns in social variables, social institutions, and. It is useful to study sociology to achieve a greater understanding of: the social world. How individuals relate to social patterns: others in the multicultural context of canada.

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