SA 250 Review

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Sociology and Anthropology
SA 250
Ann Travers

1 Theories Unit 3 - Theorist Theory Karl MARX Estranged Labour Capitalism is bad  Distinction between property owners and propertyless workers Laws come from nature of private property  workers ignored  competition  humans = commodity  Estrangment = alienation Worker separated from his products Workers life isnt his  workers life = objects life  better/ imporved object/ product = worse/ crazier person Alienation of labour  Forced labour  Work separate from home  self sacrifice  Labour is someone elses  Man turns into an animal To be human is to consider nature inorganic it is not the human body but an extension. The object holds power over man Alienation between people PRIAVTE PROPERTY COMES FROM ALIENTATED (EXTRANGED) LABOUR  Alienated labour happens when there is a relationship between men Camera Obscura: Projects real world onto paper  Marx: Man projects the real world into his world as objects or words , men produce their conceptions Class struggle Society = history of class struggles Bourgeoisie VS proletariat Bourgeoisie  From serfs of middle ages  political advance of their own class  pay most revolutionary part  turned everything into money SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 2  manipulative  increased urban pop. built large cities  destroyed feudalism  created the proletariat Proletariat  only live when they have work  labour increases capital  commodity  sell themselves --- lifeless  working class  extension of machine Durkheim Anomie: Durkheims definition theory of disorder - normlessness Animals are simple - eat sleep repeat Humans do what animals do - but need more  need feeling + attention  feeling + emotion = torment Class scale changes with economy  Expectations based on class  class inherited  Talent always inherited Economic disaster  Sudden change  casts some into lower class  Ppl must learn to decrease requirements  ppl not adjusted to new conditions ==> intolerable ==> suffering Sudden change requires time for society to adjust (reorganization) Poverty protects against suicide  less you have less you lose  less you compare to yourself to people Types of Suicide 1. Egotistic - no longer finds a basis for existence in life 2. Anomic suicide - doue to society + mans lack of regulation of sufferings (up or down in class) 3. Altanistic - basis for existence seems to be situated beyond life itself GRADUAL ADAPATION TO LARGE CHANGES CREATES HARMONY BIG CHANGES ARE BAD PEOPLE SHOULD ONLY WANT WHAT THEY CAN HAVE Weber Classes - possible + frequent bases for social action SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 3 Class situation: Determined economically  Common specific casual component of life chances  component represent by economic interests  Represented under conditions of commodity or labour markets Class action: Social action by members of a class  Due to distribution of property + structure of economic order Change due to increasing rationalization  pursuit of economic game  Rationalization: Goal orientated thinking (EX: Schools run by the clock)  Rationalization DEHUMANIZES o Focused bureaucracy o Bureaucracy forgets + ignores individual needs of a person o creates iron cage Capitalism = Result of ideas spreading - celebrating work + money for its own sake  Emerged from religion  westerners take for granted the value of work  religious context gone  ideas now part of society IDEAS CAUSE CHANGE SOCIALLY IRON CAGE = INCREASED RATIONALIZATION Change is hard to obtain  solution to dehumanization = almost impossible Negative effects of progress will innevitably be fixed Interplay of class, prestige and status (Mother theresa) SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 4 Unit 4 Theorist Theory Gilman (1892) Physicians dont think shes rlly sick  think its hysteria  women not seen as intelligent  men want women to be submissive Limits placed on women make them crazy Inequality = mens fault Solution = change mens views De Beauvior (1949) Women arent  part of men  minority Women are  the other  dependent on men Dependency due to history or social change  womens movement always symbolic It is human nature to separate others Women get that men are willing to grant  lack concrete means of organizing themselves that can stand against men  no past, history, religion of theor own  no solidarity of work + interest  no community (dispersed amongst men) Proletariat, Negros + Jews compared to women  band together to fight  find a common ground  community + living in groups made them strong  generated change Women lack a group identity Women must find common ground to create change Inequality = biological and natural Solution = formation of community and ignoring differences Friedan (1963) Celebrates feminists gains SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 5 Feminine mystic - made women question their own sanity, self worth + femininity Women told to pity women who are  neurotic  unfeminine  unhappy  wanted to be a physicist, poet, president Women told not to be independent 50s + 60s women would rather die than become less feminine If a women had a problem in the 50s + 60s  something wrong w her marriage  something wrong w her  ashamed to talk about their feelings Women aware of other womens despair Husbands didnt understand wives dissatisfaction with life Inequality = media/ socialization Solution = women need to voice distress & dissatisfaction and come together Unit 5 Theorist Theory Martin Luther KING Jr. Fascinated by Gandhi  non violent resistance  STYAGRAHA  changed his view from CHRISTIAN only to WIDER "This was the only morally & practically sound method open to oppressed ppl in their struggle for freedom" king on Gandhis Methods SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 6 View on VIOLENCE:  Impractical + immoral  ends in destruction for all  leaves ppl blind  seeks to HUMILIATE opponent  Doesnt look for understanding  Annihilation > conversation  Thrives on hatred  ends when violence defeats itself  leads to a cycle View on nonviolent action  looks at truths of both sides  2 sides agree not to be physical  balancing of 2 sides of equation  fights against oppression not the oppressor  Brings ultimate community together  Frees oppressor from spiritual ruin  frees oppressed from injustice  invites oppressor to helped opressed Non violence lets Negros stay in south to struggle  Solution isnt to run away  staying south sets example of courage  must not fall into trap of VIOLENCE!!! Problem not just racial  struggle between people  justice vs injustice Negros must be like father + son  show forgiveness once they have power  nonviolence makes whites afraid of retaliation  w negro power they must act w/o "restraint or pity to revenge the injustices and brutality of the years"  show whites they want equality for both sides when words dont work use action SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 7 consciousness enlisted under nonviolence not races Fanon Decolonization = replacing 1 "species" of man w another  No transition  Absolute substitution  Modifies and individual Social structures need to be changed from the bottom up  Need for change lies in state who turns a blind eye to problems  Decolonization operates on this quote "The last shall be first and the first last"  Makes it seem perfect + ok  Makes it look successful Decolonization leaves ppl w/o colour  Race of angels  dont want to be their "true self"  deny origainl race  native throws himself greedily over western culture Colonizer Vs colonized Mechanisms need for decolonization in Africa  Direct force creates colonization +maintains it  direct force + violence only way to remove colonialism US + South African struggles = different Violence necessary because  Free physical + mental body  Free consciousness  Required for decolonization Ideal society  Not integrated  European things all gone  fully decolonized  Black vs white still there except in FAVOUR of black identity SA 250 Nakita Cheung Study Guide 8 Unit 6 Theorist Theory Weeks No connection between sexual behaviour + identity Some identify as gay but dont like the activities - other vise versa 4 stages (plummar (4 S's): 1. Sensitization - person becomes aware of possibil
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