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HIST 2110Y Study Guide - Final Guide: Wage Slavery, Endangerment, Sharecropping

Course Code
HIST 2110Y
Jeremy Milloy
Study Guide

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Short Answer Questions
Causes of the Civil War
Economic and social differences between the North and the South
There was an increase in plantations due to the invention of the cotton gin
The Southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and
slavery (cheap labour, aka selling cotton cheaper)
The Northern economy was based on industry instead of agriculture, they
purchased raw cotton and turned it into finished goods
This disparity between the two set up a major different in economic attitudes
In the North society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to
work together, while the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social
States versus federal rights
Many felt that the new constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to
act independently, they felt that the states should still have the right to decide
if they were willing to accept certain federal acts
This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the
right to rule federal acts unconstitutional, the federal government denied
states this right
The fight between slave and non-slave state proponents
In Kansas, pro-slavery Missourians began to pour into the state to help force
it to be slave
The fighting that occurred caused it to be called Bleeding Kansas –
demonstrated the shocking lengths both sides would go to shape US’s future
Growth of the abolition movement
The northerners became more polarized against slavery
Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and
This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Toms Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John
Brown’s Raid, and the passage of fugitive slave act that held individuals
responsible for harbouring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-
slave states
The election of Abraham Lincoln
When Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its “Declaration of
the Causes Secession”, why South Carolina seceded from the Union
The South believed Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favour of Northern
Before Lincoln was even president, seven states had seceded from the Union
Advantage of North and South going into the Civil War
Northern Advantages:
Twice the population of the South (4x the non-slave population)
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Far more industrially advanced; far better able to produce weapons and goods it
Far better transportation system, especially railroads
Southern Advantages:
Simpler objective: only had to defend its territory
Home-field advantage: fighting on its own territory
White population mostly unified in support of the war, unlike the North
International dependence on Southern textiles could help convince France and
England to support the South
Why was the Civil War Won or Lost?
The Emancipation Proclamation (the end of legal slavery) – slaves forced this
issue, fleeing slavery by the thousands (especially in territory that was occupied
by Union forces)
Escaped slaves provided valuable military and geographical information to the
With so much of their wealth invested in slaves and land, the South had little
liquid currency to pay for war
Food supplies in the South were scarce, especially since so many farm labourers
were away at war, food prices through the roof
Thousand of Southerns deserted the army, 100,000 left in the last few years
Effects of the Civil War on America?
Created a national income tax, the first ever, sold bonds and issued paper currency
to fund the war
The war changed the vision of America, from a union of co-equal states, to an
increasing emphasis on the nation – a unified political entity
The Civil War was not just a conflict on the battlefield, fighting it was a massive
effort that transformed almost every aspect of society in both North and South
It created the American Nation in a real sense
A stronger national government, with a much greater sense of federal government
presence in the lives of ordinary Americans
It created a nation with a new definition of freedom, dramatically expanded to
include free blacks across America, as part of the vision of the nation
The war changed from a fight to preserve the union to include a fight to destroy
That fight, that war, was a cataclysm unlike any American had ever known, before
or since
Emancipation Proclamation
Was signed by Lincoln in 1863 and did not free slaves immediately
It only applied to the slaves living in areas still under Confederate control, not
slaves living in Union states or Union-controlled Confederate territory
Nevertheless, it sparked joyous celebrations among free blacks and abolitionists
It was a radical expansion of the concept of American Freedom
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