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[INDG 1000Y] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (78 pages long!)


Department
Indigenous Studies
Course Code
INDG 1000Y
Professor
Shpuniarsky Heather
Study Guide
Final

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Trent
INDG 1000Y
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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INDG Lecture #2 Notes
Colonization:
1st era initial contact and establishment of colonies
2nd era nation building by colonizing powers and the colonies, emerging nation states
3rd era on going colonization and neo colonization
Diffusion:
based on the inside outside model: permanent centre (Europeans) + permanent
periphery (natives); Europeans the source of all ideas and pass them down to the natives,
but sometimes they took ideas from the natives (ex. The canoe)
based on the idea that most human communities are uninventive with the expectation of
the view that only a few are
the periphery can only receive inventive ideas from the centre
one of the fundamental assumptions
Blaut’s 7 proportions:
1. Europe progresses for the better
2. Non-Europe is backward and stagnant
3. Progress is caused by the European mind
4. Non-progress is caused by the lack of “rationality” and proper spiritual values
5. Progression happens through diffusion of ideas from the Centre to the Periphery
6. Counterdiffusion of material wealth to compensate for civilizing ideas
7. Counterdiffusion of uncivilized ideas can occur
Opposition Table:
Core
Periphery
Inventiveness
Imitativeness
Rationality, intellect
Irrationality, emotion
Abstract thought
Concrete thought
Theoretical reasoning
Empirical reasoning
Mind
Body, matter
Discipline
Spontaneity
Adulthood
Childhood
Sanity
Insanity
Science
Sorcery
Progress
stagnation
Europeans:
many came before Columbus
Norse in Mi’maki 1001-1015, Henry Sinclair in 1390’s and many fishermen from
Portugal, England etc. (Had a relationship with the local natives for trade reasons and
then left)
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Christabel Colon aka. Christopher Columbus (really don’t know much about him)
searched for a westward route to India
Finds what is now the Bahamas and the Taino people
Columbus:
King John II in Portugal 1484, turned down the idea of finding India
Turned down again in 1486 in Spain by Queen Isabelle but then she changes her mind in
1492
Spread Christianity, compete with Portugal over wealth, and to funnel resources
When he lands in 1492, he lays claim to territory in the name of the Spanish crown
Columbus through his language creates the ideology of America
All that he sees and names is interpreted through his particular worldview
Told stories to make the native people sound like demons then Queen Isabelle questioned
if natives were even human
Naming and Cristobal:
Power in naming
Thinking that he landed in India, Columbus referred to the inhabitants as indios or
Indians
Chose his name: Colon because he was moved by divine will, it means “repopular”
Cristobal: bearer of Christ, the evangelizer and colonizer.
He believed his purpose in life from god was to do this work
He set about naming the worlds he encountered in his manner
Papal Bulls:
Authority: catholic churches imperium over all matters
The bull Romanus Pontifex 1455: any new place found if the people weren’t Christian
they could be used as legal slaves
The bull of demarcation (inter caetera) 1493: convert inhabitants to Catholicism
Treaty of Tordesillas:
1494 Portugal and Spain
line drawn running north and south
Portugal has power over the East side and Spain had power over the West side
What he did:
2nd trip Spanish settlers set up the encomienda (law that natives work for them) system
and required tribute
natives became forced labour workers under Spanish slave law
natives began to die in large numbers
Las Casas states claimed million
Slavery:
Aristotle believes there is “natural slavery” where people like natives are just born into it
Challenged by Las Casas in 1550
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