5/13/2013 12:38:00 PM
Validity of a claim tested using FLaReS
- Replicability - is the information reproducible. Can ireplicate the
experiment to prove my claim
- Sufficiency – Is the evidence being presented to support this claim
sufficient. So the more Grandiose the claim, the evidence must be very
If a claim passes all four FLaReS tests, then it may be true. New evidence
may be brought forward to disprove the claim. It may still be proven false. If
it fails even one of the tests, it is likely to be false.
- Testimonial cannot be used as evidence to support a claim
- London Fog 1952
- 1808 increasing number of known elements around that time with no
apparent order. John Dalton set up the first table based on atomic masses
relative to hydrogen.
Amu: atomic mass units (u)
1869, Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing
atomic mass. He left gaps for yet undiscovered elements. He also predicted
the properties of those elements. When those elements were eventually
discovered, many of his predictions were found to be accurate.
- Classifying Matter
Pure substances --- can it be separated by a physical process? Mixtures
Compounds – can be broken down into simpler ones by chemical means,
elements cannot. Elemental oxygen is just a single oxygen, molecular
oxygen is two.
Carbon Dioxide – Compound
Nickel – elemet
Cocaine – Compound
Water Molecules (words) are groups of atomos chemically bonded together. A
molecule of water is composed of two atomos of hydrogen (H) bonded to an
atom of oxygen (O). H2
A space-filling model for a water molecule, H20.
A molecule is a fixed number of atoms held together by chemical bonds in a
certain spatial arrangement.
The chemical formula symbolically represents the type and number of eac