Vitruvius Created the “Vitruvian man”; researched where Roman
architecture originated; architectural historian, geometry and
architect; ten books on architecture; part of a classical
rediscovery; relationship between macrocosm and microcosm
-Sfumato From Italian meaning “smoky” or “vanished in smoke”. It’s a
unique form of atmospheric chiaroscuro used in painting,
characterized by blurry transitions and smooth gradations of
light. Technique aims to simulate the filtering effects of haze,
smoke or the atmosphere at dusk. It is a characteristic technique
often present in Leonardo’s works.
-Latin-cross plan A cross like floor plan to provide the church with an extended
-Nave Central space of a basilica, two or three stories high usually
flanked by aisles
-Transept The arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave
-Aisle Passage or open corridor of a church, hall, or other building that
parallels the main space, usually on both sides, and is delineated
by a row, or arcade, of columns or piers.
-Crossing The point where the nave an transept cross
-Sacristy A room where ritual attire and vessels are kept
Arcade A series of arches, carried by columns or piers and supporting a
common wall or lintel
-Alchemy A philosophy practiced in middle ages and renaissance
concerned with methods for transmuting baser metal into gold.
-Pilaster An engaged column like element that is rectangular in format
and used for decoration in architecture
-Oculus A circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall
-Frieze The middle element of an entablature between the architrave and
the cornice. Usually decorated with sculpture, painting, or
moldings. Any continuous flat band with relief sculpture or
-Martyrium A religious building, type that originated in early Christian
period. Built to commemorate the site of death, execution, or
burial of important miracle, typically central-plan configuration;
circular or octagonal footprint.
-Doric Column could be fluted or smooth surfaced with no base,
undecorated echinus and abacus, masculine like structure.
-Ionic Column has a base with fluted shaft, volute capitals, female like
-Acanthus Mediterranean plant whose leaves are reproduced in
architectural ornament used on moldings, friezes, and Corinthian
-Corinthian Ionic and much more decorative; elaborate top, most
ornamental, petrified acanthus leaves -Triglyph Rectangular block between the metopes of a doric frieze.
Identified by the three carved vertical grooves, which
approximate the appearance of the end of a wooden beam.
-Metope The carved or painted rectangular panel between the triglyphs of
a doric frieze
-Ignudo “male nude” an Italian word to which Michelangelo gave an art
historical meaning. Referring to the male nude figures in the
Sistine chapel ceiling. They are idealized nudes which celebrate
perfect humanity with the symbolism of classical iconography.
Not biblical in origin
-Sybil “divine counsel” were female oracles in ancient Greece who
lived and offered advice at holy sites. Their prophecies were
believed to have been delivered through divine inspiration from
a god or goddess.
-Quadratura Painted frames in architecture; illusion of fake architecture
-Cabinet Picture Small easel painting produced for the private enjoyment of
individual wealthy patrons interested in the contemplation of
intellectual and aesthetic matters, and displayed in their private
study or “cabinet of curiosities”
-Sprezzatura Term originates from baldassare castiglione’s II Libro del
cortegiano (the book of the courtier), as “a certain nonchalance,
so as to conceal all art and make whatever one does or says
appear to be without effort and almost without any thought about
-Poesie Specific category of renaissance painting where the inspiration
of the pictorial subject originates from a literary (poetic) source.
Term denotes both the content and the object of painting, the
subject usually involves mythological, allegorical, or the
imaginative content and is intended to function as…
-Pastoralism Subject matter that is occupied with rural themes; poetic
presentation of rural life
-Pediment A triangular gable found over major architectural elements such
as classical greek porticoes, windows or doors. Formed by an
entablature and the ends of a sloping rook or a raking cornice. A
similar architectural element is often used decoratively above a
door or window, sometimes with a curved upper molding, a
broken pediment is a variation on the traditional pediment, with
an open space at the center of the topmost angle and/or the
-Cassone An Italian dowry chest often highly decorated with carvings,
paintings, inlaid designs, and gilt embellishments
-Ergotism Poisoning by a toxin that is created by a fungus that lives on rye;
produces a range of symptoms; self inflicted symptoms due to
-Reformation Religious, protestant -Johann Tetzel Salesman of indulgences; raising money for the building of St
-Martin Luther Student and teacher of theology; religious; disputation of Martin
Luther on the Power and efficacy of indulgences (95 Theses)-
his outrage about the unbiblical things that were happening,
criticizing the institution and church; put on trial as a heretic,
-[protestant] Iconoclasm The banning or destruction of images, especially icons and
religious art. Iconoclasm in eighth and ninth century Byzantium
and sixteenth and seventeenth century protestant territories arose
from differing beliefs about the power, meaning, function, and
purpose of imagery in religion
-Calvinism Major branch of protestanism that follows the theological
tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and
-Pope Leo X Sociable, easy going, pleasure loving, fundamental church
corruption, simony and nepotism, realized the bourgeoise dream,
sale of indulgences, ambitious, tried to make money out of
everything. Died without the sacraments
-Intaglio Term refers to a range of printmaking techniques utilising a pre-
carved image matrix which bears the design to be printed. The
matrix may be made of a variety of materials; the image is
incised on the surface with a variety of tools, depending on the
matrix material and desired effects; the incised lines/marks or
sunken areas hold the ink.
-Print Matrix Mold for printing that is used with ink the hold the image that
makes up the print
-Woodcut A type of print made by carving a design into a wooden block,
the ink is applied to the roller. As the ink remains only on the
raised areas between the carved away lines, these carved away
areas and lines provide the white areas of the print
-Engraving An intaglio printmaking process of inscribing an image, design,
or letters onto a metal or wood surface from which a print is
made. An engraving is usually drawn with a sharp implement
directly onto the surface of the plate
-Etching An intaglio printmaking process in which metal plate is coated
with acid resistant resin and then inscribed with a stylus in a
design, revealing the plate below. The plate is then immersed in
acid and the design of exposed metal is eaten away by the acid.
The resin is removed, leaving the design etched permanently
into the metal and the plate ready to be inked, wiped, and
-Burin A metal instrument used in engraving to cut lines into the metal
plate. The sharp end of the burin is trimmed to give a diamond
shaped cutting point, while the other end is finished with a
wooden handle that fits into the engraver’s palm. -Simony Buying and selling of ecclesiastical positions and privileges
-Nepotism Favoring relatives or friends by awarding them positions, jobs,
privileges, or generally advancing the interests of one’s family
by those in positions of power.
-Sale of indulgences Promising forgiveness of sins and assurance of salvation in
exchange for a financial contribution to the Church.
-Maniera Originally the word meant a highly-prized quality of stylishness
which implied an ease of manner, virtuosity, and refinement.
The quality was not restricted to the practice of the visual arts.
By the 18 century (enlightenment) the term was derogatory,
denoting a self-consciously refined, effected, contrived,
mannered imitation in art that lacked originality and innovation.
-Baroque The art/style of outreach; its effectiveness is predicated on the
acknowledged presence of the viewer; the spectator is required
to be there and to emotionally participate to complete the work.
-Barocco Before, denoting the style in art, Barocco was the term for
irregularly shaped pearls and the masses of nacre. These
materials were used as decorative medium in sculpture and in
applied design schemes.
-Counter-reformation Council of Trent; guidelines for church commissioned art,
publicly displayed at religious venues.
-Council of Trent 1545-63; series of policies to stop the reformation or mitigate the
effects of. Proposed new visual standards, guidelines for church
commissioned art, publicly displayed art religious venues.
-Tenebrism (tenebroso) A form of dramatic, high contrast, chiaroscuro invented in
Caravaggio, characterized by an overall dark appearance with
the exception of using theatrical spotlighting where light brings
attention to areas of narrative interest.
-Quadro Riportato “transported” or “carried painting”. The term is used to describe
trompe l’oeil imagery on ceilings that appear the easel paintings
in gilded frames, painted from a straight on perspective, and
installed in an overhead location.
-Di sotto in su A perspectival device using extreme foreshortening of figures
painted on a ceiling (or other overhead location) to create the
illusion that the figures are suspended in the air located high
above the viewer. All elements are painted from the perspective
consistent with a spectator down below, objects far above.
-Un bel composto Unification of visual/formal means and techniques to create
integrated environments in order to heighten a relig