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ART H102 Final: Final Vocab Terms

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Art History
ART H102
Hoyne Santa- Balazs

Terms Definitions Vitruvius Created the “Vitruvian man”; researched where Roman architecture originated; architectural historian, geometry and architect; ten books on architecture; part of a classical rediscovery; relationship between macrocosm and microcosm -Sfumato From Italian meaning “smoky” or “vanished in smoke”. It’s a unique form of atmospheric chiaroscuro used in painting, characterized by blurry transitions and smooth gradations of light. Technique aims to simulate the filtering effects of haze, smoke or the atmosphere at dusk. It is a characteristic technique often present in Leonardo’s works. -Latin-cross plan A cross like floor plan to provide the church with an extended nave -Nave Central space of a basilica, two or three stories high usually flanked by aisles -Transept The arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave -Aisle Passage or open corridor of a church, hall, or other building that parallels the main space, usually on both sides, and is delineated by a row, or arcade, of columns or piers. -Crossing The point where the nave an transept cross -Sacristy A room where ritual attire and vessels are kept Arcade A series of arches, carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel -Alchemy A philosophy practiced in middle ages and renaissance concerned with methods for transmuting baser metal into gold. -Pilaster An engaged column like element that is rectangular in format and used for decoration in architecture -Oculus A circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall -Frieze The middle element of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice. Usually decorated with sculpture, painting, or moldings. Any continuous flat band with relief sculpture or painted decorations. -Martyrium A religious building, type that originated in early Christian period. Built to commemorate the site of death, execution, or burial of important miracle, typically central-plan configuration; circular or octagonal footprint. -Doric Column could be fluted or smooth surfaced with no base, undecorated echinus and abacus, masculine like structure. -Ionic Column has a base with fluted shaft, volute capitals, female like structure -Acanthus Mediterranean plant whose leaves are reproduced in architectural ornament used on moldings, friezes, and Corinthian capitals -Corinthian Ionic and much more decorative; elaborate top, most ornamental, petrified acanthus leaves -Triglyph Rectangular block between the metopes of a doric frieze. Identified by the three carved vertical grooves, which approximate the appearance of the end of a wooden beam. -Metope The carved or painted rectangular panel between the triglyphs of a doric frieze -Ignudo “male nude” an Italian word to which Michelangelo gave an art historical meaning. Referring to the male nude figures in the Sistine chapel ceiling. They are idealized nudes which celebrate perfect humanity with the symbolism of classical iconography. Not biblical in origin -Sybil “divine counsel” were female oracles in ancient Greece who lived and offered advice at holy sites. Their prophecies were believed to have been delivered through divine inspiration from a god or goddess. -Quadratura Painted frames in architecture; illusion of fake architecture -Cabinet Picture Small easel painting produced for the private enjoyment of individual wealthy patrons interested in the contemplation of intellectual and aesthetic matters, and displayed in their private study or “cabinet of curiosities” -Sprezzatura Term originates from baldassare castiglione’s II Libro del cortegiano (the book of the courtier), as “a certain nonchalance, so as to conceal all art and make whatever one does or says appear to be without effort and almost without any thought about it” -Poesie Specific category of renaissance painting where the inspiration of the pictorial subject originates from a literary (poetic) source. Term denotes both the content and the object of painting, the subject usually involves mythological, allegorical, or the imaginative content and is intended to function as… -Pastoralism Subject matter that is occupied with rural themes; poetic presentation of rural life -Pediment A triangular gable found over major architectural elements such as classical greek porticoes, windows or doors. Formed by an entablature and the ends of a sloping rook or a raking cornice. A similar architectural element is often used decoratively above a door or window, sometimes with a curved upper molding, a broken pediment is a variation on the traditional pediment, with an open space at the center of the topmost angle and/or the horizontal cornice/ -Cassone An Italian dowry chest often highly decorated with carvings, paintings, inlaid designs, and gilt embellishments -Ergotism Poisoning by a toxin that is created by a fungus that lives on rye; produces a range of symptoms; self inflicted symptoms due to neurological symptoms. -Reformation Religious, protestant -Johann Tetzel Salesman of indulgences; raising money for the building of St Peter’s Basilica. -Martin Luther Student and teacher of theology; religious; disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and efficacy of indulgences (95 Theses)- his outrage about the unbiblical things that were happening, criticizing the institution and church; put on trial as a heretic, excommunicated. -[protestant] Iconoclasm The banning or destruction of images, especially icons and religious art. Iconoclasm in eighth and ninth century Byzantium and sixteenth and seventeenth century protestant territories arose from differing beliefs about the power, meaning, function, and purpose of imagery in religion -Calvinism Major branch of protestanism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and Reformation -Pope Leo X Sociable, easy going, pleasure loving, fundamental church corruption, simony and nepotism, realized the bourgeoise dream, sale of indulgences, ambitious, tried to make money out of everything. Died without the sacraments -Intaglio Term refers to a range of printmaking techniques utilising a pre- carved image matrix which bears the design to be printed. The matrix may be made of a variety of materials; the image is incised on the surface with a variety of tools, depending on the matrix material and desired effects; the incised lines/marks or sunken areas hold the ink. -Print Matrix Mold for printing that is used with ink the hold the image that makes up the print -Woodcut A type of print made by carving a design into a wooden block, the ink is applied to the roller. As the ink remains only on the raised areas between the carved away lines, these carved away areas and lines provide the white areas of the print -Engraving An intaglio printmaking process of inscribing an image, design, or letters onto a metal or wood surface from which a print is made. An engraving is usually drawn with a sharp implement directly onto the surface of the plate -Etching An intaglio printmaking process in which metal plate is coated with acid resistant resin and then inscribed with a stylus in a design, revealing the plate below. The plate is then immersed in acid and the design of exposed metal is eaten away by the acid. The resin is removed, leaving the design etched permanently into the metal and the plate ready to be inked, wiped, and printed. -Burin A metal instrument used in engraving to cut lines into the metal plate. The sharp end of the burin is trimmed to give a diamond shaped cutting point, while the other end is finished with a wooden handle that fits into the engraver’s palm. -Simony Buying and selling of ecclesiastical positions and privileges -Nepotism Favoring relatives or friends by awarding them positions, jobs, privileges, or generally advancing the interests of one’s family by those in positions of power. -Sale of indulgences Promising forgiveness of sins and assurance of salvation in exchange for a financial contribution to the Church. -Maniera Originally the word meant a highly-prized quality of stylishness which implied an ease of manner, virtuosity, and refinement. The quality was not restricted to the practice of the visual arts. By the 18 century (enlightenment) the term was derogatory, denoting a self-consciously refined, effected, contrived, mannered imitation in art that lacked originality and innovation. -Baroque The art/style of outreach; its effectiveness is predicated on the acknowledged presence of the viewer; the spectator is required to be there and to emotionally participate to complete the work. -Barocco Before, denoting the style in art, Barocco was the term for irregularly shaped pearls and the masses of nacre. These materials were used as decorative medium in sculpture and in applied design schemes. -Counter-reformation Council of Trent; guidelines for church commissioned art, publicly displayed at religious venues. -Council of Trent 1545-63; series of policies to stop the reformation or mitigate the effects of. Proposed new visual standards, guidelines for church commissioned art, publicly displayed art religious venues. -Tenebrism (tenebroso) A form of dramatic, high contrast, chiaroscuro invented in Caravaggio, characterized by an overall dark appearance with the exception of using theatrical spotlighting where light brings attention to areas of narrative interest. -Quadro Riportato “transported” or “carried painting”. The term is used to describe trompe l’oeil imagery on ceilings that appear the easel paintings in gilded frames, painted from a straight on perspective, and installed in an overhead location. -Di sotto in su A perspectival device using extreme foreshortening of figures painted on a ceiling (or other overhead location) to create the illusion that the figures are suspended in the air located high above the viewer. All elements are painted from the perspective consistent with a spectator down below, objects far above. -Un bel composto Unification of visual/formal means and techniques to create integrated environments in order to heighten a relig
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