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EDPY301 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sentence Clause Structure, Relate

Education - Psychology
Course Code
Amy Thomas
Study Guide

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What is and isn’t differentiated instruction
o DI provides students with multiple options for taking in information, making sense of
ideas, and expressing what they learn.
o Offers several avenues to learning, but does not assume a separate level for each
o It is understanding that there are many ways to learn, recognizing that students learn
differently, and providing students with opportunities to learn in many ways best for
o Teacher uses flexible grouping, accommodating students who are strong in some areas
and weaker in others
o Teacher assigns students to groups so that assignments are tailored to student need,
and in other instances, students form their own working groups
o Teacher uses many different group configurations over time and students experience
many different working groups arrangements
o DI is NOT
Homogenous grouping
When students are consistently grouped the same way, generally by
ability, and the groups are almost always teacher selected
Tailoring the same suit of clothes or micro-differentiating
Why differentiate instruction
o Diversity in the classroom
o Will have struggling learners, grade level learners, and advanced learners
o All require rich learning experiences that challenge them
What is meant by differentiating content, process and product bases on interest, learning
profile, and readiness
o Content
What we want the students to know
o Process
How students make sense of ideas
o Product
How students demonstrate what they’ve learned
What is the difference between accommodations and modifications
o Accommodations
Change how a student is taught
Change how he/she is assessed
Can be defined as a service or support provided to help a student fully access
the subject matter and instruction or to demonstrate their knowledge when
assessed both formally and informally
Allows the student to work on grade level content with the same
achievement expectations as everyone else

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o Modifications
Change what a student is taught
Change how he or she is assessed
Change to the subject matter that is presented or an alteration of the
performance level by reducing the content to be learned and a change to both
formal and informal evaluation
Change the difficulty level of what is taught and assessed
Do not usually alter that theme or topic of study, but change the curricular
goals/objectives for that student
Must be a TEAM decision
Can include and not limited to
o Student
o Parent
o Administration
o Other classroom teachers
o Special education coordinator
What is scaffolding and why do we do it
o Scaffolding is the process that enables a student to solve a problem, carry out a task, or
achieve a goal which would be beyond his or her unassisted efforts (yelland)
o Instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired leaning strategy or
task, then gradually shifts responsibility for using the strategy or completing the task to
the student (Jordan, 2007)
o If learning is scaffolded, by the teacher, students can not only accomplish tasks at a
higher level, but are also able to internalize the thinking, and strategies, used in one task
to new tasks (Yelland)
o Purpose is not to aid the student in completing a task but to aid the handover of the
skills needed to complete the task to the student
o Teacher and student jointly perform the task or parts of the task to develop the
student’s subsequent ownership of the skill
o The distinction between handover and helping is critical
o Focus of scaffolding must be on the student’s active participation in the task
What is the origin and basis of scaffolding in educational contexts
o Vygotsky- ZAD and ZPD
Some challenges of scaffolding
o Scaffolding requires that the teacher give up some of the control and allow the students
to make errors
o Teachers may not properly implement scaffolding instruction and therefore not see the
full effect
o Developing scaffolds to meet the needs of each students requires more teacher
planning time

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Difference between scaffolding and shaping
o Both start with task analysis
o Shaping requires mastery (80%) before moving on to the next step
o Scaffolding involves providing students with supports to help them meet the outcome
that are then gradually faded
Types of scaffolds and how we know which is which
o Structural
Preplanned and relatively static
Can be engineering a learning context or planning a skill routine
o Interactive
In the moment and dynamic
3 types
Origin of UDL
o Architecture- comes from universal design
3 key principles of UDL
o Multiple means of…
Action and Expression
Relationships between the brain networks, 3 key UDL principles and DI
o Representation = Recognition Network = Content
o Action and Expression = Strategic Network = Product
o Engagement = Affective Network = Process
Elements considered when planning UDL environments
o Social
o Physical
o Academic: goals, materials and resources, methods, assessment
Hidden Curriculum
o Wide variety of social skills and strategies including teacher pleasing behavior, peer
interactions, and group dynamics
Current state of inclusive education for exceptional students in Canada and specifically in
o Focus on accountability
o Alberta advocates educated students with disabilities in the least restrictive
Recent developments in responsive pedagogy across Canada
o UDL, DI and RTI (response to intervention)
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