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Final

Final Exam Notes


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR100
Professor
Rhonda Bell
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 17
Final Exam Review
Lecture Notes Nov 16- Dec 7th, 2010
CHAPTER 16 - Nutrition Through the Lifecycle: Infancy Through
Adolescence &
Late Adulthood
Part One: Infancy Through Adolescence
INFANT FEEDING: Infants undergo lots of changes within year 1, they transition from breast
milk to formula, soft foods and then most adult foods. This transition depends of various factors
including: skill, ability to manipulate food in mouth, nutrient requirements and avoid foods that
are not safe
Transition Foods:
4-6: iron fortified cereals, pureed v/f, and their juices
6-8: mashed vegetables/fruits, infant breads/crackers
8-10: protein, fish, finely chopped meats, chicken, egg yolk, cooked beans, teething crackers,
soft cooked v/f
10-12: whole egg, cooked whole milk
Guidelines for Feeding Infants/Children:
- variety, moderation, balance
- by 1 year of age: child should eat same foods as parents
- feeding times positive experiences
- no restriction of dietary fat intake
TODDLERS: 1-3 years
- rapid growth rate of infancy slows
- gain 14-19cm/ 4-5 kg
- high energy and increased activity
Macronutrients: 30-40% kcal from fat, 1.1 grams protein/kg, 130 grams carbohydrates/day, 19
grams fibre/day
Micronutrients: source: fruits/vegetables: vitamin A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc for growth!
iron deficient anemia: most common nutrient deficiency in young children
Challenges/Concerns: Eating behaviours erratic, easily distracted, unpredictable -
Developmentally appropriate foods: firm raw foods are a CHOCKING HAZARD: nuts carrots
grapes raisins cherry tomatoes, PROVIDE: cut soft foods, more firm foods as teeth develop, fun
shapes, keep variety of foods available, don't force food, don't use bribery, role modeling ,
portion sizes: small but regular, one tablespoon of ach food group/year of age. OVERWEIGHT?
>80th percentile should be monitored. BARAPHOBIA: underfeeding of children by parents who
are concerned child becoming obese or developing CVD
PRESCHOOLERS: 4-5 years
- growth rate continues to slow, physical activity levels increase!, appetite diminished
- will gain 7-10cm/2.3-2.6 kg/year, grow in spurts, height, weight change
- Development: Language fluency, decision making, physical coordination, increasing
independence
Macronutrients: 0.95 grams protein/kg, 130 grams carbohydrates/day, 25 grams fiber/day
Micronutrients: vitamins A, C, E from fruits/vegetables, calcium, iron, zinc )AI increases for
Calcium, RDA increaseas for iron/zinc
Challenges/Concerns: parents must teach preschoolers about healthy food choices, concerns:
overweight/obesity, dental caries,
SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN: 6 to 13 years
- growth is slow/steady, 5-7.5 cm/year
- make own food choices, activity levels vary
Macronutrients: 25-25% total energy from fat, o.95 grams protein/kg, 130 grams
carbohydrates, 25 grams fibre/day
Micronutrients: need increases most due to sexual maturation onset, AI for calcium increases,
RDA for iron decreases slightly
Challenges/Concerns: influencing nutritious food choices: peer pressure, body image, role
models, involvement in f ood preparation, nutrition-related concerns: body image/appearance as
puberty approaches, inadequate Ca intake due to making own decisions in favor of other
beverages -> can lead to "milk displacement"
NUTRITION PRINCIPLES FOR MEAL PLANNING: small frequent meals/snacks, high nutrient
dense foods, variety, moderation, be aware of additional influences: to, media, family,
environment
DIVISION OF RESPONSIBLITIES: (-- ELLYN SATTER)
PARENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR:
WHAT FOOD OFFERED
WHEN IT IS OFFERED
WHERE IT IS OFFERED
CHILD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR:
HOW MUCH THEY EAT
WHETHER OR NOT THEY EAT
OBESITY IN CHILDREN:
EPIDEMIC AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN CANADA
15-25% OF CDN CHILDREN ARE CLASSIFIED OBESE
CAUSES?? - Food Intake > Energy Output, children should be active for 90 mins/day
Implications = long term health, increased risk as adult, social/psychological issues, difficulties in
weight loss vs. prevention of weight gain
AT RISK: BMI > 80TH PERCENTILE
OBESE: BMI > 95TH PERCENTILE
TREATMENT: 3 components = dietary modification, increased physical activity, family
involvement
Ecological changes; vending machines, walk-able neighbourhoods, etc.
OTHER NUTR RELATED CONCERNS DURING CHILDHOOD:
- poverty: 60,000- children in Alberta live below the poverty line, higher risk of deficiencies
- breakfast skipping: 15-20% children in Canada skip breakfast/once a week: lower blood
sugars, decreased concentration and ability to learn
- iron deficiency: affects 12% children in North America, lack of energy/decreased immune
function, more susceptible to lead poisoning, ensure diet contains iron rich foods
CELIAC DISEASE:
- HEREDITARY CAUSE, DIAGNOSED IN CHILDREN, DIGESTIVE DISEASE THAT INTERFERS WITH
ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SMALL INTESTINE. PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE CANNOT
TOLERATE GLUTEN: PROTEIN IN RYE, BARLEY, OATS, WHOLE WHEAT. GLUTEN STIMULATES AN
AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE. TREATMENT: AVOID GLUTEN CONTAINING FOODS: WHEAT, BARLEY,
OAT, RYE, ALTERNATIVES: SOY FLOUR, POTATO FLOUR, GLUTEN-FREE STARCHES. EXAMPLES OF
FOOD WITH GLUTEN: BREADS/CEREALS/CHOCOLATE PUDDING, ICE CREAM, BREADED VEGGIES,
THICK PIE FILLINGS. MOST PROCESSED FOODS, COMMERCIAL SALAD DRESSINGS, SAUCES,
CHIPS, LICORICE, SMARTIES. COMMON CAUSES OF unintentional GLUTEN INGESTION: SHARED
COOKING UTENSILS, SHARED TOASTER, RESTAURANT FOOD, POOR FOOD LABELING, FOOD
PREPARED BY THOSE NOT FAMILIAR WITH GLUTEN-FREE FOODS
Adolescents: age 14-18 years
- onset of puberty
- growth spurts
- physical changes: hormonal changes: sexual maturation, weight gain, body composition
changes, emotional/social changes, more independence, peer and social influence
Macronutrients: EER= based on gender, age, weight, height, activity level/ 25-35% energy
from fat, 45-60% kcal from carbohydrates, 0.85 grams protein/kg body weight / 26 grams
fibre/day
Micronutrients: calcium intake should support peak bone density, iron needs high (more for
girls), vitamin A crucial for growth and development, supplements: safety net only, not to replace
healthy diet
Challenges/Concerns: peer influences and fast-paced lifestyle can lead to adolescents to
choose fast foods, parents can be role models, adequate food groups intake, adequate physical
activity important, dieting and meal skipping can begin in these years, smoking/alcohol/illegal
drugs can impact nutrition also
------
Part Two: Nutrition through Late Adulthood
Canada's Ageing Population: 12% of population is over 65 years age, increased life
expectancy is indicator of population health
WHY DO WE AGE? - decreased self protection (decreased immunity), increased self-destruction
(increased apoptosis) - Depends on genetics, lifestyle, environment
PEOPLE WHO LIVE LONGER:
- EAT REGULAR, BALANCED MEALS, INCLUDE BREAKFAST