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POL S101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Classical Liberalism, Social Liberalism, Social Anarchism

Political Science
Course Code
POL S101
Satish Joshi
Study Guide

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Chapter 4- Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism and Fascism
pg 77
Learning Objectives
1. Explain the meaning and significance of political ideology
2. Discuss the ideas of liberalism, conservatism, socialism and fascism
3. Outline the development and major variations of each ideology
4. Apply the terms "left" and "right" to the analysis of political perspectives
Political Ideologies
-Enlightenment: 18th C intellectual movement emphasizing human reason
-Karl Marx (communism):
- inequality
- maintain tradition
- greater social and economic

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oRule of Law:
oClassical liberalism: limited government; free market place
oLaissez-faire economics: private businesses, no government interference
oreform liberalism (social liberalism, welfare liberalism):
support individual freedom
support also government assisting to remove obstacles for individual
support free-enterprise
government should play role in assisting the disadvantaged through such
measures as:
unemployment insurance
old age pension
health care
subsidized education
government action is needed to ensure equal right to freedom
greater emphasis on equality
particularly equality of opportunity
emphasizes it more than classical liberalism
share views with classical liberalism:
free-enterprise system
reform liberals argue that property right may need to be limited to
some extent, in order to advance the rights and freedoms of
John Maynard Keynes
government use power to make economy run smoothly
take communitarian approach rather than individualist approach

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oneoliberalism: free market place; opposition to government intervention in
omore towards laissez-faire economy with limited role of gov
ogov services should be privatized where possible
otaxes reduced
ostrict access to welfare
oassociated with contemporary conservatism
Conservatism (reactionaries):
oEdmund Burke
odeveloped in response to the French Revolution
ochallenged the privileges of elites
opromoted equality
opromoted popular sovereignty
oproclaimed "rights of man"
oreactionaries: advocated a return to the values of the old order
oEdmund Burke
change should be slow
oconservative thinkers think humans are evil
otraditional, religious
The New Right (neo-conservative):
influential, contemporary form of conservatism
a perspective that combines the promotion of
free-market capitalism
limited government
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