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Religion 240 Midterm 2 Review.docx

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University of Alberta
Religious Studies
Neil Dalal

Religion 240 – Introduction to Buddhism – Midterm 2 Review Names and Terms: Śmatha Calming Meditation – involves withdrawal from sensory input and progressive states of trance, mental training for observation of events/higher trance (Vispasyana) Buddhaghosa – lists 40 objects of contemplation for process of calming the mind in 2 classes: ancillary techniques and trance techniques Ancillary techniques – those that function to eliminate distractions, to turn around individuals lust, hatred and delusion (master ‘prescribes’right technique) ex: meditate on ugliness of body to eliminate lust, focus on mindfulness of breath to defile enthusiasm (soothing as well) Trance techniques – those involved directly in induction of trance, lead to high levels of abstraction and withdrawal, ex: mediation upon one of ten devices until its completely memorized and 5 hindrances fade (lust, hatred, sloth, remorse, doubt) and go into four trances and four formless realms Four trances: 1.5 hindrances replaced with factors of concentration (discursive thought, reasoning, enthusiasm, pleasure, one-pointed concentrated), 2.eliminates discursive thought and reasoning 3.eliminates enthusiasm (highest trance of pleasure) 4.eliminates pleasure, mind pure just complete concentration on object Four Formless Realms of… – away from realm of form (great sensory withdrawal): 1.Infinite space (expands object to get rid of it its material) 2.Infinite Perception (eliminates space, concentrates on perception of this) 3.Nothing-at-All (eliminates perception, concentrate that nothing remains, Buddha learned with Arada Kalama) 4.Neither Idea nor Non-Idea (eliminates idea of nothing, concentrate on peace, Buddha learned with his 2 teacher) Vipaśyanā Insight Meditation – aka mindfulness meditation, attention generally towards 5 skandhas and seeing they are impermanent (realization of no selfnirvana) Buddhaghosa’s 7 virtues/purities – last 5 specific to insight meditation Awareness of what is happening in the present (not focusing on past/future) – manipulating the mind to slow things down Where 4 noble paths are realized (stream winner, once returner, nonreturner, arhat) Bhiksụ Male monk order of the Sangha Focus on following the precepts as well as monk precepts Significant – world’s oldest monastic order, profound shift inAncient India before was just sramanas, provided teachings/guidance to laity in return for donations/support Strong holding power/growth of Buddhism came out of the monasteries established First 5 monks were five arhats/ascetics at First sermon Bhiksụ nī Female nun order of the sangha, originally wasn’t allowed into the monasteries (Jains first religion to ordain women) 5 years after Buddha teaching – lets women become nuns, Mahaprajapati asks and he refuses,Ananda finds out and asks him and he finally agrees Buddha was being quite liberal at the time – but don’t know if bias in writing could have come men writing them Had 8 more precepts than monks making them inferior to even the newest monks, nuns and monks had to be present to ordain nuns (after died out hard to start up again), nuns couldn’t criticize monks Story of Naga snake – why they need same gender present to check Had trouble sustaining because monks were considered superior/more educated so laypeople preferred donating to the Bhiksu (got more merit) Were not allowed to be educated or go to the large Buddhist universities that started Upāsaka Term for the laity of the sangha (male term, female term Upasika) Symbiotic relationship with the monks/nuns – donated and supported them in return for teachings, hope to gain merit These lay devotees also follow 5 precepts to abstain from killing, stealing, lying, sexual misconduct and intoxicants Became more involved in Mahayana movement\\nt Ānanda Buddha’s attendant/disciple – convinced him to allow women into the sangha as nuns Why if previous Buddhas had let women become nuns (Buddha could see this) Buddha gives in to him not wanted to disturb him and inhibit his teaching and spreading the dharma after he was gone (after he asks three times) st Recites the Sutras (teachings) at the 1 council Upāya Kausa ́lya (skillful means) One of ten paramitas of Mahayana (7 ), one of main differences of Mahayana Practiced by teachers of mediation/bodhisattvas – know best way to help their student understand or realize the teachings Allows them to find precise method of teaching for each individual (apply their wisdom) Need to use certain means because they may not be able to learn ultimate truth yet Parable of Burning house – father tricks his children to come out of the house by saying he has ox cart (best toy), deer cart and goat cart but only gives them the best the ox cart Ox cart refers to bodhisattva-yana, while others belong to Hinayana, pratyekabuddha and sravaka (disciples/hearers) Children represent all beings and the burning house is samsara – justifies Buddha teaching the way he did, was a way to spread enlightenment but Mahayana is the true great vehicle Skillful means also shows compassion of bodhisattvas vs. selfish of arhats Story of Vimalakirti – taught sravakas and bodhisattvas, made himself sick so people would come to him then he would teach them 1stand 2ndCouncils 1 Council – purpose was to establish canon of Buddhism (record Buddha’s teachings after he died, monk Upali recites Vinaya andAnanda recites the sutras and becomes enlightened created most important content of early Buddhist canon Pali Canon – 3 Baskets: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutra Pitaka andAbhidharma Pitaka(came later) Sutra Pitaka from photographic memory ofAnanda of all the buddha’s sermons Abhidharma Pitaka a scholastic discussion of ontology of constituents or reality 2 Council – 100ish years later, over disagreements in Vinaya, no real consensuscreates new groups/schisms issues: how many time you can beg, accept money, how luxurious monastery can be (split between luxury and ascetiscism) Vinaya Rules for individual monk and entire monastic community/sangha tells a lot about actual real life situations that arose and had to be dealt with Significant – it exists because its rules weren’t always followed, many monasteries very austere about obedience to the Vinaya Can’t be dismissed because Buddha strongly believed in it and Buddhism wouldn’t have survived without it (held texts, spread Buddhism) Vinaya – made monks meritouslaity would help them Comprised of Pratimoksa and Karmavacan (rules for sangha) Small issues became significant (one or two shoulder robes in Bhurma) Prat̄imoksạ rules of monastic life, originally made so monks and nuns could live together in rainy season, and punishments Recorded in the Vinaya, about 227 rules (Theravadan) for fully ordained monks, 311 for nuns, intended to recited twice a month at ordination ceremonies Governs monastic life: ethical rules, dress code, eating, sleeping, cleanliness, relationships with opposite sex Arranged by type of punishment if violate (from expulsion to minor breaches requiring confession), also more expulsion rules for nuns than monks Tripiṭaka Pali canon supposedly from 1 council has Three Baskets or pitakas: 1.Vinaya Pitaka – rulestfor individual monk and rules for community/sangha, recited by Upali at the 1 council 2.Sutra Pitaka – means thread, with many teachings, Buddha’s sermons from photographic memory ofAnanda who becomes arhat while reciting them 3.Abhidharma Pitaka – came later (less imp.), scholastic discussion of ontology, constituents of reality st Only Pali canon from Sri Lanka left is from 1 council Vasubandhu One of the founders of Yogacara Supposedly converted by his brotherAsanga Writes 30 Verse of perception Can’t trust assumption that objects exist externally Parikalpita svabhav ̄a (in Yogac̄āa) Imagined/Mentally constructed nature of reality One of 3 natures (others are relative reality/Dependent nature and ultimate reality/perfected nature) Imagined because they believe in Mind only – our world of perception is simply a manifestation of the mind Sense of the world we experience, what we think of as common sense understanding of the world Constructed nature stripped away once you realize dependent nature Perfected nature denies all duality Ālayavijñāa Asanga and Vasubandhu wrote about 8 consciousnesses emphasized this one, one of two added to original six along with mind conciousness reason for false sense of self (6:consciousness of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, brain/thinking) Storehouse or granary conscious – repository for seeds of past karmic acts Seeds held until they manifest, they are tainted so we perceive reality delusionally, this accounts for the existence of memory Metaphor – sprout, germinate, harvest and stored again Consciousness of coming to fruition – subject and object arise at same time at every experience, continous sense of self that seems unchanging with objects changing (stream of seeds – seems constant) Subject and object of perception arise out of same seed (non-duality) Emptiness in Yogacara more lack of subject and object not lack of svobhava Vasubandhu writes 30 verses of perception – abhidharmic list of dharmas associated with consciousness  all merely perception Asóka KingAsoka/Ashoka ruled
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