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Sociology of Power 334 11-25

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Ariane Hanemaayer

SOCIOLOGY 334 MICHEL FOUCAULT & NIKOLAS ROSE Power always has a telos in Foucault. He has three kinds of power: DISCIPLINE* NORMALIZATION* GOVERNMENTALITY *biopower Discipline: how can we get people to discipline themselves Normalization: political technology to change individuals to an institutionally constructed mandate combine into Biopower: combines both discipline and the biopolitics of the population, the individual and the population, respectively. Governmentality: ... he was criticized for not explaining the state (or explaining away the state). Althusser talked about all the apparatuses of the state. For Foucault it is micropower, diffuse and from below, permeating into all aspects of social life, so this attention to government/governing/art of government is just a kind of governmental rationality. We will talk about the three different movements: REMIX: modern govts as the reformulation of three historical models of rule AROUND AND AROUND: dispositif as an apparatus of governement and rule ECONOMIC DOMINANCE: advanced liberalism and modern governance (we need Rose to understand this) "governmentality" we will focus on governing and how it targets people's conduct to shape the field of actio▯, it is about STRUCTURING THE FIELD OF POSSIBLE ACTIONS. dominance is once removed from the actual context. the focus of governing is neither indivudalized bodies nor populations Governmentality it is "THE CONDUCT OF CONDUCT" what people are actually doing individually, and the way people are conducted, like electricity. how we conduct conduct, examples: • traffic calming measures, ie speed bumps, narrowing roads, adding concrete planters, etc • new environmental policy: the overal objective is to encourage public transit use by increasing parking meter rates • reduce "unhealthy" vices: "sin taxes" on cigarettes and alcohol and gambling etc it is shaping the field of possible actions modern state apparatuses rely on governing and think about governing, it is a GOVERNMENTAL RATIONALITY think of it this way: governing is domination lit▯ - it takes for granted the idea that we are all 'free subjects', so we have to change people's own self directed choices he wants to talk about how the state works without recourse to a 'soveriegn', the state is not a monolithic actor. GOVERNING indirect domination by targeting actions, practices, and conduct structruing the field of possible actions. this is not about the body as in discipline. it is about these forces shaping the options you can choose from. as a student of althusser, he took issue with the 'ideological state apparatuses' model, because in things like families, teams, businesses, even ourselves, there is a governing happening. WHERE DID MODERN GOVERNANCE COME FROM?: PASTORAL MODEL surveying and caring for each individual soul and the ▯hol▯ congregation/parish the pastor must attend to all and each, omnes et singulati▯ the goal of this model is leading the flock, getting the whole congregation to have salvation in these particular ways. it is all about what the flock needs and how can i lead them to that. protecting the flock to better people. the telos of pastoral model of governing is to lead the flock to salvation POLICE MODEL police in the foucault sense, it has to do with policy and policy development. first emerged in germany. constitutes social life as a object and target of investigation and intervention techniques for gathering specialized knowledge about the population. There is a minister of health and a minister of health care the techniques for generating this knowledge is a form of surveillance. the information is used to develop policy. important: it is a utopian practice, it is gathering knowledge and then improving it. it is the thought that counts the sheep. it is not ust looking out and seeing the certain sheep who need salvation more, it is the very thought that structures the surveillance. what it is you look for. DIPLOMATICO-MILITARY MODEL emerged from solving problems between territories. unlike the nothers, not a grand model of rationality. set of techniques for generating security. getting states to recognize each other. how it is states developed in order to allow observance of boundary lines. it required diplomacy and militance. these are techniques for this to happen how to secure the field, the entire territory, in order that we can then develop our programs of governance. techniques for generating security. the shift after this: once there are treaties and boundaries are solidified, a new worry emerges: THREATS FROM WITHIN, dissent, unrest, etc. we have a new modern mentality: it is not just about securing rule of a territory (diplomatico-military) but knowing what is going on in that territory (police) and leading that population where you want it to develop better than other states (pastoral). managing the population inside not so much worrying about the other states, gaining more territory and protecting your territory. shift to generating health and wealth. SECURITY - securing the conditions to pursue a better life TERRITORY - governing where life takes place POPULATION - what is everyone doing putting it all together to do one new thing: getting a new and improved society. this is the rational of this new governing - the making of society to be better in earlier forms of governance had a lot more to do with society's fate, god determined. in the modern form society has a future: how can society be in the future? what can we become? how do we do it? the power here is getting people to do things: domination lit▯ GOVERNANCE AS DISPOSITIF 0 FRENCH FORAPPARATUS contingent combination of several elements: 1. INSTITUTIONS 2. "POLICE" SURVEILLANCE 3. POLICY PROGRAMES 4. EFFECTS/RESULTS 5. USAGE/USE (OF EFFECTS) *See slides for more details EXAMPLE: development of women's prison in canada. in 1835 th
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