MICHEL FOUCAULT & NIKOLAS ROSE
Power always has a telos in Foucault.
He has three kinds of power:
Discipline: how can we get people to discipline themselves
Normalization: political technology to change individuals to an institutionally constructed mandate
combine into Biopower: combines both discipline and the biopolitics of the population, the individual and the
he was criticized for not explaining the state (or explaining away the state). Althusser talked about all the
apparatuses of the state. For Foucault it is micropower, diﬀuse and from below, permeating into all aspects of social
life, so this attention to government/governing/art of government is just a kind of governmental rationality.
We will talk about the three diﬀerent movements:
REMIX: modern govts as the reformulation of three historical models of rule
AROUND AND AROUND: dispositif as an apparatus of governement and rule
ECONOMIC DOMINANCE: advanced liberalism and modern governance (we need Rose to understand this)
we will focus on governing and how it targets people's conduct to shape the ﬁeld of actio▯, it is about
STRUCTURING THE FIELD OF POSSIBLE ACTIONS.
dominance is once removed from the actual context.
the focus of governing is neither indivudalized bodies nor populations
Governmentality it is "THE CONDUCT OF CONDUCT"
what people are actually doing individually, and the way people are conducted, like electricity.
how we conduct conduct, examples:
• traﬃc calming measures, ie speed bumps, narrowing roads, adding concrete planters, etc
• new environmental policy: the overal objective is to encourage public transit use by increasing parking meter
• reduce "unhealthy" vices: "sin taxes" on cigarettes and alcohol and gambling etc
it is shaping the ﬁeld of possible actions
modern state apparatuses rely on governing and think about governing, it is a GOVERNMENTAL
think of it this way: governing is domination lit▯
- it takes for granted the idea that we are all 'free subjects', so we have to change people's own self directed choices
he wants to talk about how the state works without recourse to a 'soveriegn', the state is not a monolithic actor.
indirect domination by targeting actions, practices, and conduct
structruing the ﬁeld of possible actions.
this is not about the body as in discipline. it is about these forces shaping the options you can choose from.
as a student of althusser, he took issue with the 'ideological state apparatuses' model, because in things like
families, teams, businesses, even ourselves, there is a governing happening.
WHERE DID MODERN GOVERNANCE COME FROM?: PASTORAL MODEL
surveying and caring for each individual soul and the ▯hol▯ congregation/parish
the pastor must attend to all and each, omnes et singulati▯
the goal of this model is leading the ﬂock, getting the whole congregation to have salvation in these particular
ways. it is all about what the ﬂock needs and how can i lead them to that. protecting the ﬂock to better people.
the telos of pastoral model of governing is to lead the ﬂock to salvation
police in the foucault sense, it has to do with policy and policy development. ﬁrst emerged in germany.
constitutes social life as a object and target of investigation and intervention
techniques for gathering specialized knowledge about the population.
There is a minister of health and a minister of health care
the techniques for generating this knowledge is a form of surveillance. the information is used to develop policy.
important: it is a utopian practice, it is gathering knowledge and then improving it. it is the thought that counts
the sheep. it is not ust looking out and seeing the certain sheep who need salvation more, it is the very thought
that structures the surveillance. what it is you look for.
emerged from solving problems between territories. unlike the nothers, not a grand model of rationality. set of
techniques for generating security. getting states to recognize each other. how it is states developed in order to
allow observance of boundary lines. it required diplomacy and militance.
these are techniques for this to happen
how to secure the ﬁeld, the entire territory, in order that we can then develop our programs of governance.
techniques for generating security.
the shift after this:
once there are treaties and boundaries are solidiﬁed, a new worry emerges: THREATS FROM WITHIN, dissent,
we have a new modern mentality: it is not just about securing rule of a territory (diplomatico-military) but knowing
what is going on in that territory (police) and leading that population where you want it to develop better than
other states (pastoral). managing the population inside not so much worrying about the other states, gaining more
territory and protecting your territory. shift to generating health and wealth.
SECURITY - securing the conditions to pursue a better life
TERRITORY - governing where life takes place
POPULATION - what is everyone doing
putting it all together to do one new thing: getting a new and improved society.
this is the rational of this new governing - the making of society to be better
in earlier forms of governance had a lot more to do with society's fate, god determined. in the modern form society
has a future: how can society be in the future? what can we become? how do we do it?
the power here is getting people to do things: domination lit▯
GOVERNANCE AS DISPOSITIF
0 FRENCH FORAPPARATUS
contingent combination of several elements:
2. "POLICE" SURVEILLANCE
3. POLICY PROGRAMES
5. USAGE/USE (OF EFFECTS)
*See slides for more details EXAMPLE: development of women's prison in canada. in 1835 th