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Anthro midterm definitions.docx

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ANTH 1150
Female80-minute Anthroprof

Anthropology Chapter 1 Definitions The five fields of anthropology, Cultural Anthropology deals with the description and analysis of cultures—the socially learned traditions of past and present ages Archeology examines the material remains of past cultures left behind on or below the surface of the earth Anthropological Linguistics is the study of the great variety of languages spoken by human beings Physical Anthropology (also called biological anthropology) connects the other anthropological fields to the study of animal origins and the biologically determined nature of Homo sapiens. Applied Anthropology uses the findings of cultural, archeological, linguistic, and biological studies to solve practical problems affecting the health, education, security, and prosperity of human beings in many cultural settings. Holism is an approach that assumes that any single aspect of culture is integrated with other aspects, so that no single dimension of culture can be understood in isolation. Fieldwork refers to firsthand experience with the people being studied. It involves integration into a community through long-term residence and knowledge of the local language and customs while maintaining the role of observer Fieldnotes are the data collected by anthropologists Interviews rely entirely on research subjects as sources of knowledge Participant observation places the ethnographer at the scene where a combination of direct observation and interviewing provides the evidence from which ethnographic accounts are constructed Culture shock is the feeling of anxiety and disorientation that develops in an unfamiliar situation when there is confusion about how to behave or what to expect Informants are people through whom the anthropologist learns about the culture through observation and by asking questions Ethnography is a firsthand description of a living culture based on personal observation Ethnology is a study of a particular topic or problem in more than one culture, using a comparative perspective Chapter 2 Harris Definitions Culture refers to the learned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behavior found in human societies. It is a socially acquitted lifestyle that includes patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. Subculture members share certain cultural features that are significantly different from those of the rest of society Enculturation is a partially conscious and partially unconscious learning experience whereby the older generation invites, induces, and compels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and behaving Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own patterns of behavior are always natural, good, beautiful, or important and that strangers, to the extent that they live differently, live by savage, inhuman, disgusting, or irrational standards. Cultural relativism stipulates that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another. Yet it is evident that not all human customs or institutions contribute to the society’s overall health and well-being, nor should they be regarded as morally or ethically worthy of respect Diffusion takes place when culture contact leads to borrowing and passing on of culture traits Emics describe culture from the participant’s viewpoint; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the participants Etics describe culture from the observer’s perspective; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the observer The Universal Pattern is a set of categories that is comprehensive enough to afford logical and classificatory organization for a range of traits and institutions that can be observed in all cultural systems Infrastructure consists of the technologies and productive and reproductive activities that bear directly on the provision of food and shelter, protection against illness, and the satisfaction of sexual and other basic human needs and drives Structure consists of the groups and organizations present in every society that allocate, regulate, and exchange goods, labor, and information Superstructure consists of the behavior and thought devoted to symbolic, ideational, artistic, playful, religious, and intellectual endeavors as well as all the mental and emic aspects of a culture’s infrastructure and structure Cultural materialism is a research strategy that holds that the primary task of cultural anthropology is to give scientific causal explanations for the differences and similarities in thought and behavior found among human groups Evolutionism (Nineteenth-century evolutionism) The idea of cultural progress was the forerunner of the concept of cultural evolution that dominated theories of culture during the nineteenth century Lewis Henry Morgan (evolutionism) divided evolution of culture into 3 main stages: savagery, barbarism, civilization Historical Particularism to understand/explain a particular culture, the best one can do is reconstruct the unique path it has followed Bronislaw Malinowski (functionalism) Cultural institutions function to meet the basic physical and psychological needs of people A. R. Radcliffe-Brown (structural functionalism) Stresses the contribution of the social structure and kinship to the maintenance of the equilibrium of society Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead (Culture and Personality) Leslie White (Cultural Ecology) Clifford Geertz (Symbolic Anthropology) Chapter Four Definitions Semantic universality is a unique aspect of human communication. It refers to the communicative power of language—the fact that language provides for nearly infinite combinations that express different experiences and thoughts in different ways Phonetics is the study of the phones, or individual sounds, that native speakers make Phones represent etic occurrences. They occur due to variations in the location of the tongues and lips and the stress, pitch and tone of the sound. They can be observed and identified in speech without having to question the speaker Phonemes are units of sound (phones) that lack meaning in themselves; they are the smallest sound contrasts that distinguish meaning
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