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Chapter 1-5

Anthro Review for midterm 1 Harris Text Chapters 1-5, 7, 19 summaries .odt

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ANTH 1150
Susan Chuang

Anthropology Review Midterm 1: HARRIS Chapter 1 The 5 Fields ofAnthropology: 1) Cultural anthropology - deals with the description and analysis of cultures. The socially learned traditions of past and present ages. -Ethnography: a sub-discipline of Cultural anthropology that describes and interprets present day cultures.Afirsthand description of a living culture based on personal observation. 2) Archeology - similar to the goals of cultural anthropology but differ in methods - examines the material remains of past cultures left behind on or below the earth's surface. 3) Anthropological Linguistics - the study of the great variety of languages spoken by human beings. - attempt to trace the history of all known families of languages - concerned with the way language influences and is influenced by other aspects of human life, with the evolution of language and our species. 4) PhysicalAnthropology -Study of animal origins and the biologically determined nature of Homo sapiens. - study fossil remains of ancient human species to reconstruct the course of human evolution 5) Applied Anthropology - uses the findings of all of the above to solve practical problems affecting the health, education, security, and prosperity of human beings in many cultural settings. Holism: The distinction of anthropology among the social sciences is that it is holistic; it tries to understand the processes that influence and explain all aspects of human thought and behaviour. It is an approach that assumes that any single aspect of culture is integrated with other aspects, so that no single dimension of culture can be understood in isolation. Fieldwork: Refers ti the firsthand experience with the people being studied. It involves integration into a community through long term residence and knowledge of the local language and customs while maintaining role behaviour. Fieldnotes: The data collected by anthropologists. Include journals, daily logs, diaries, interviews, behavioural observations. Everything the anthropologist writes down as he or she sees or hears it. Interviews: Rely entirely on research subjects as sources of knowledge. Research subjects can provide cultural interpretations and report events they have witnessed or heard firsthand. Participant observation: Places the ethnographer at the scene where a combination of direct observation and interviewing provides the evidence from which ethnographic accounts are observed. Culture Shock: the feeling of anxiety and disorientation that develops in an unfamiliar situation when there is confusion about how to behave or what to expect. Informants: People the anthropologist observes and asks questions in order to learn their culture. Ethnology: Anthropologists use the comparative method to understand patterns of thought or behaviour that occur in a number of societies.Astudy of a particular topic or problem in more than one culture, using a comparative perspective. Chapter 2 Culture: refers to the learned, socially acquired traditions of thought ans behaviour found in human societies. It is a socially acquired lifestyle that includes patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. Subculture: members of a subculture share certain cultural features that are significantly different from those of the rest of society. Enculturation: is a partially conscious and partially unconscious learning experience whereby the older generation invites, induces, and compels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and behaving. Ethnocentrism: is the belief that one's own patterns of behaviour are always natural, good, beautiful, or important and that strangers, to the extent that they live differently, live by savage, inhuman, disgusting or irrational standards. Cultural Relativism: Stipulates that behaviour in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another. Yet it is evident that not all human customs or institutions contribute to the society's overall health and well-being, nor should they be regarded as morally or ethnically worthy of respect. Diffusion: Takes place when culture contact leads to borrowing and passing on of culture traits. Emics: describe culture from the participants' viewpoint; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the participants. Etics: describe culture from the observers' perspective; the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the observer. The Universal Pattern: is a set of categories that is comprehensive enough to afford logical and classificatory organization for a range of traits and institutions that can be observed in all cultural systems. Infrastructure: consists of the technologies and productive and reproductive activities that bear directly on the provision of food and shelter, protection against illness, and the satisfaction of sexual and other basic human needs. Structure: consists of the groups and organizations present in every society that allocate, regulate, and exchange goods, labour and information. Suprstructure: consists of the behaviour and thought devoted to symbolic, ideational ,artistic, playful ,religious, and intellectual endeavours as well as all the mental and emic aspects of a culture's infrastructure and structure. Cultural Materialism: stipulates that behaviour in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another. Yet it is evident that not all human customs or institutions contribute to the society's overall health or well-being, nor should they be regarded as morally or ethnically worthy of respect. Evolutionism: (19 century Darwinism) cultures were regarded as moving through various stages of development according to different levels of rational knowledge, ending up with something resembling the euro-American lifestyle. Lewis Henry Morgan Evolutionism: all societies evolve through a series of stages as a result of rational thinking. It was assumed that cultural evolution depended on the principle of natural selection. Historical Particularism: Stresses the uniqueness of each culture and the need for in-depth ethnographic fieldwork. Bronislaw Malinowski functionalism: A. R. Radcliffe- Brown Structural Functionalism: The task of anthropology is to understand how critical institutions meet the needs of individuals and contribute t the functioning of society. Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead culture and personality: anthropology's task is show the relationship among early childhood experiences in creating a common personality that impacts cultural variables. Leslie White Cultural ecology: cultures evolve in direct proportion to their capacity to harness energy; cultures in similar environments have similar features in response to environmental challenges. Clifford Geertz SymbolicAnthropology: Public symbols and rituals represent important aspects of culture. Chapter 4 Semantic Universality: is a unique aspect of human communication. It refers to the commmunicative power of language- the fact that language provides for nearly infinite combinations that express different experiences and thoughts in different ways. Phonetics: the study of phones, or individual sounds, that native speakers make. Phones: represent etic occurrences. They occur due to variations in the location of the tongue and lips and the stress, pitch, and tone of the sound. They can be observed and identified in speech without having to question the speaker. Phonemes: are units of sound (phones) that lack meaning in themselves; they are the smallest sound contrasts that distin
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