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Harris Midterm One Definitions & Terms

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ANTH 1150
Satsuki Kawano

Cultural Anthropology by M HarrisDefinitions and Terms Midterm 1Chapter 1The five fields of anthropologyCultural anthropology deals with the description and analysis of culturesthe socially learned traditions of past and present agesArchaeology possesses similar goals to cultural anthropology but they differ in the methods they use and the cultures they study Archaeology examines the material remains of past cultures left behind on or below the surface of the earth Anthropological linguisticsthe study of the great variety of languages spoken by human beings Anthropological linguists attempt to trace the history of all known families of languagesPhysical anthropologyconnects the other anthropological fields to the study of animal origins and the biologically determined nature of Homo sapiensApplied anthropologyuses the findings of cultural archaeological linguistic and biological studies to solve practical problems affecting the health education security and prosperity of human beings in many cultural settingsHolism the distinction of anthropology among the social sciences is that it is holistic it tries to understand the processes that influence and explain all aspects of human thought and behavior It is an approach that assumes that any single aspect of culture is integrated with other aspects so that no single dimension of culture can be understood in isolation Fieldwork refers to firsthand experience with the people being studied It involves integration into a community through longterm residence and knowledge of the local language and customs while maintaining the role of observerField notes the data collected by anthropologists Includes journals daily logs diaries interviews behavioral observations and transcriptions of audiotapesInterviews rely entirely on research subjects as sources of knowledgeParticipant observation places the ethnographer as the scene where a combination of direct observation and interviewing provides the evidence from which ethnographic accounts are constructed Culture shock is the feeling of anxiety and disorientation that develops in an unfamiliar situation when there is confusion about how to behave or what to expect Informants are people through whom the anthropologist learns about the culture through observation and by asking questionsEthnography is a firsthand description of a living culture based on personal observation Ecological anthropology considers the interaction between environment and technology to study human adaptation and behavior
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