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University of Guelph
ENGG 1070

LECTURE ONE- INTRODUTION • Lost-time injury: a workplace injury that results in employees missing time from work; • Occupational Health & Safety (OHS): the identification, evaluation and control of hazards associated with the work environment; • Occupational Injury: Any cut, fracture, sprain or amputation resulting from a workplace accident; • Occupational Illness: Any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment • Act: A federal, provincial or territorial law that constitutes the basic regulatory mechanism for occupational health and safety. • Regulations: Explain how the general intent of the act will be applied in specific circumstances. • Guidelines and Policies: More specific rules that are not legally enforceable unless referred to in a regulation or act. • Due Diligence:Take every precaution reasonable under the circumstances to protect the health and safety of all workers • Standards and codes: Design-related guides established by agencies such as the CSA or ANSI. • “Supervisor”: a person who has charge of a workplace or authority over a worker • “Competent Person": means a person who, (a) is qualified because of knowledge, training and experience to organize the work and its performance, (b) is familiar with this Act and the regulations that apply to the work, and (c) has knowledge of any potential or actual danger to health or safety in the workplace • Specific Deterrence (reactionary): To motivate an individual to change their behaviour to a higher standard of conduct. e.g. You get a traffic ticket and slow down as a result. • General Deterrence (proactive): Motivate people to pay attention to their responsibilities and take “reasonable care”. e.g. You observe someone else get a traffic ticket and you slow down as a result. • Strict liability: The Ministry of Labour (MOL) need not prove you acted intentionally, knowingly, recklessly or negligently; they must only prove that you committed a prohibited act (or failed to perform a required act). If you have demonstrated reasonable care under the circumstances, you will be able to use due diligence as a defense. Legal Considerations: • Every worker has the right to safe working conditions. • Section 25 of the OH&S Act requires an employer “to take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances for the protection of a worker” - (known as due diligence). • Due diligence requires a business to foresee all unsafe conditions or acts and requires it to take precautions to prevent accidents that can reasonably be anticipated; Due diligence requires a worker to work in compliance with health and safety legislation. Moral Considerations: • Employers have an obligation to ensure safe working environments for employees and their families; • Research indicates that management commitment to OH&S results in higher levels of employee motivation to work safely. The Stakeholders (Responsibility) Government: • The Workmen’s Compensation Act was passed in 1914 in Ontario providing lost-time wages to almost every injured worker, removing the right of workers to sue their employers; • Now, a well-established system of Workers Compensation (Workplace Safety and Insurance Board – WSIB) the enforcement and prevention arm of the Ministry of Labour (MOL) help prevent and enforce health and safety in the Province of Ontario • The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOH&S) was established by the federal government to provide health and safety information to any worker who requests it. Employers: -The employer is responsible for preparing a written occupational health and safety policy and ensuring that it is prominently displayed in the workplace. -Employers are required to: • Provide and maintain equipment, materials and protective devices • Ensure that the manner in which work is performed is safe and the environment free from hazards and risks • Monitor their workplace and report minor, critical, disabling and fatal injuries Employees: As individuals, employees are required to: • perform their duties and tasks in a safe and responsible manner and to wear protective equipment in compliance with company and legal requirements; • to report defective equipment and other workplace hazards to safety professionals or joint health and safety committees; • The right to refuse unsafe work Organized Labour: Roles of organized labour include: • Bringing emerging problems and issues in OH&S to the attention of government and employers and pressure other stakeholders to take corrective action; • Use the collective bargaining process to incorporate health and safety provisions in contracts • Formalize voluntary measures and extend legislative programs Partnerships: Barriers to OH&S programs: • Employers are concerned with production quotas than safety records • Employers may be unaware of the methods and instruments to rigorously monitor the workplace • Work climates emphasizing conflict between management and the union • Medical establishments not well versed in occupational medicine Ways to overcome barriers: • Form alliances amongst stakeholders • All parties have the same goal to reduce injuries and illnesses • Win-win situations in bargaining • Legislation requiring establishment of joint health and safety committees with 5 or more employees The Scope of OH&S Legislation -Under common law, an employer is obliged to take reasonable precautions in ensuring the safety of an employee. -All OH&S legislation includes the following elements: • An act • Powers of enforcement • The right of workers to refuse to do unsafe work • Protection of workers from reprisals • Duties and responsibilities assigned to employers and others Environmental Legislation • The health and safety professional will be conscious of the overlap in environmental and OH&S statutes and regulations. • Chemicals that can cause damage to a worker may also cause damage to the ecosystem if released into the environment. Environmental Statutes: • Canadian Environmental Protection Act • Environmental Protection Act (Ontario) • Ozone Depleting Substances Regulations • PCB Regulations (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) Due Diligence & the Occupational Health and Safety Act Employer’s duty: appoint “competent” persons as supervisors Half-Truth – OHS managers are responsible for developing and enforcing safety policies and regulations. Reality – Employers/supervisors/managers are responsible for management of safety and enforcement. Those who plan, lead and control the work environment are the same people who plan, lead and control the safety function of the organization. Health and Safety Legislation has 3 main sections • The Act (Legislation) • The Regulations • Appendices (other regulations, added and/or revoked regulations, indices, conversion tables, etc) Enforcement of the Act • The Ministry of Labour (MOL) enforces the Safety Act and Employment Standards Act • Right of MOL to enter workplace at any time • Decide who will liaise with the MOL inspector Internal Responsibility System (IRS) • IRS is the philosophy behind the Act – the founding principle - which guides in the management of potential H&S problems. • Everyone in the workplace – both employees and employers have responsibilities for their own safety and the safety of co-workers. The IRS: o Establishes responsibility sharing systems o Promotes safety culture o Promotes best practice o Helps develop self-reliance IRS –Chain of Responsibility Establishing Due Diligence, What is Required? • All workplace parties must understand their duties under the Act and comply with these • All risks in the workplace that are foreseeable must be identified and addressed • Safe work practices and procedures must be established and enforced • Proper training and instruction must be provided about policies, practices and procedures • Proper documentation and record-keeping must be maintained Demonstrating Due Diligence • Duties of employers, supervisors, workers and others made known • Written health and safety policies, program and procedures • Establish and support joint health and safety committees • Hazard identification, assessment and control – Documentation! • Instruction and training – Documentation! • Communication • Human resources practices (hire competent persons, discipline) • Hiring Contractors – define expectations • Auditing – program reviews and improvements Due Diligence Reasonableness in the area of health and safety includes: • maintaining plant and equipment • establishing a safe system of working • ensuring safe arrangements for the storage, transport, and use of hazardous substances • providing information and training in the use of dangerous equipment and hazardous substances • ensuring entrances and exits to the workplace are properly maintained • providing adequate facilities to ensure employee welfare. Reasonableness is required under the criminal law; the threat of damages for negligence provides a similar pressure on employers under the civil law. The OHSA: Why does the Act Exist? Relationship between Due Diligence and Deterrence: If your behaviour could be further deterred in a specific situation, you were NOT “Duly Diligent” (you could have changed your conduct for the better). Prosecution Under the Act Prosecution under OHSA is sometimes referred to as a “quasi-criminal” • Charges result from failure to do what is reasonable • Tougher penalties may result if subsequent charges are issued (may lead to criminal record) Criminal Code of Canada (Bill C-45) • As of Jan 1, 2004, the prospect of both regulatory and Criminal Code prosecutions arising from serious workplace accidents is a reality. • Amendments to the Criminal Code by Bill C-45 (known as the Westray Bill) make it easier to convict parties of criminal negligence for workplace safety violations. • These amendments do not supercede current regulatory provisions, but rather create new criminal offences for organizations and individuals who fail to protect workers and the public. • Those who undertake or have the authority to direct how another person does work or performs a task must take reasonable steps to prevent bodily harm to any person arising from the work. • C-45 applies to all organizations and to managerial personnel (front-line supervisors, officers or directors, individuals) who undertake to direct another on how to perform a task • Application of existing criminal negligence provisions mean that parties who fail in this duty and show wanton disregard for safety could be found criminally negligent. Lectures 2 Roles and Duties under the Act Strict Liability: • Ministry of Labour (MOL) need not prove you acted intentionally, knowingly, recklessly or negligently; • Prove that you committed a prohibited act (or failed to perform a required act) The Occupational Health & Safety Act: • Demonstrating reasonable care under the circumstances enables due diligence as a defense • Charges result from failure to do what is reasonable SECTIONS:are complete sentences on one topic and are Formal numbered 1,2,3,4, etc. When new sections are amended,ence and harassment in the workplace they are added and identified with a small letter, e.g. 6a. “Competent Person" means a person who, PARTS:divide theActinto ten distinct parts and are numbered I, II, III, etc. (a) is Sometimes sections are divided into paragraphs as innce to organize the work and its performance, (b) is familiar with this Act and the regulations that apply to the work, and Part II (c) hasParagraphs are numbered with a decimal and numberealth or safetyAdministrationace following the section number, e.g. 1.2. Section 9(18) It is the function of the committee and it has power to, SUB-SECTIONSd :ivide sections and are numbered (a) identify situations that may be a source of danger within parentheses, e.g. (1)(2). or hazard to workers; (b) make recommendations to the constructor or employer and the workers for the improvement of the heath and safety of the workers; (c) recommend to the constructor or employer and the CLAUSES:are distinct parts of a section and are identified workers the establishment, maintenance and by small letters within parentheses, e.g. (a)(b). monitoring of programs, measures and procedures respecting the health and safety of workers; (d) obtain information from the constructor or employer respecting, (i) the identification of potential or existing hazards of materials, processes or equipment, and SUB-CLAUSESq :ualify the conditions for a clause. They are numbered and parenthesized, e.g. (i)(ii)(iii). (ii) health and safety experience and work industries of which the constructor orother employer has knowledge; Duties of Employers Duties include • Ensure compliance with the Act and Regulations • Supervise workers to protect their health and safety • Not employ under-age workers • Provide and maintain prescribed protective equipment • Appoint “competent” persons as supervisors • Inform a worker, or a person in authority over a worker, about any hazard in the workplace • Help Joint Health & Safety Committees carry out duties • Prepare a written health and safety policy and set up a program to implement it • Take every precaution reasonable for the protection of worker Duties of Supervisor • Ensure worker complies with the Act and Regulations • Ensure required equipment, protective devices/ clothing is used or worn by worker • Advise a worker of any health or safety hazards • Provide written instructions as prescribed for worker’s protection; communicate them clearly • Take every precaution reasonable for the protection of workers Incorporating safety: In everyday planning • Designing projects • Hiring • Research and development • Planning/ carrying out installation activities • Purchasing new equipment/supplies • Developing changes to blueprints/plans • Hiring contractors Most unions do not support the IRS as they see it as a deregulation of the MOLs responsibility. MOL contends the construction endangered the lives of workers who maintained and cleaned the washroom Offences and Penalties (Section 66) On conviction is liable to maximum fine of $25,000 or imprisonment up to 12 months, or both Corporations can be fined to a maximum of $500,000 Persons reporting harassment concerns should contact: • Their supervisor or Human Resources Persons reporting violence should contact: • Human Resources or Police Ontario’s Act includes Domestic Violence • Program outlines rights and responsibilities of workers, supervisors to address this • Requirement to share information where co-worker known to be violent Ministry of Labour Inspectors can issue “tickets” for an observed contravention of a Regulation under the OHSA. Tickets can be issued at 3 levels within an organization: to the worker, the supervisor and to the employer; Penalties vary between $200 and $300 Requirements for a: Joint Health and Safety Committee Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act Section 9, an employer is required to establish and maintain a JHSC: • Where 20 or more workers are regularly employed • Where an order has been given due to the use of a toxic substance / physical agent under Section 33 • Where a designated substance regulation applies (other than a construction project with fewer than 20 regular employees), or • When otherwise ordered by the Minister of Labour Composition of a JHSC • Under 50 employees, at least 2 JHSC members • 50 or more employees, at least 4 JHSC members • Joint Committees to have 2 co-chairs: • Management co-chair selected by the Employer • Worker co-chair selected by worker members • At least one management and one worker member take certification training Part 1 and 2 – regulated by MOL (~54 hours) • In unionized environment, all unions must be represented on the JHSC • At least half of JHSC members workers with no managerial functions Functions of a JHSC • Meet quarterly (minimum) • Audit safety management and the IRS of the workplace • Inspect the workplace (monthly), or part thereof • Participate in the work refusal process • May investigate critical injuries • May be present at the start of industrial hygiene testing The right to refuse unsafe work does not apply to jobs (e.g. police officer) where the health and safety of the general public may be jeopardized. WORKER: SUPERVISOR: Promptly reports Investigates forthwith in presence of the circumstances to worker and a H&S Committee member Agreement supervisor; remains or a H&S Representative, or a worker in a safe place selected by trade union or workers* Return to Work Disagreement: Worker continues to refuse WORKER: EMPLOYER OR WORKER: Remains in a safe Notifies Inspector place unless assigned to reasonable INSPECTOR: alternative work Gives decision in writing to Return to or given other Worker, Employer or Work directions pending Representative as soon as investigation and is practicable decision Work Refusals NB – a supervisor/employer can assign work being refused to another employee Must explain the circumstances of the work refusal in the presence of the union and/or H&S rep Reprisals Against a Worker Prohibited The Act prohibits the employer or persons acting on behalf of the employer from taking action against a worker who has acted in compliance with the Act or any regulation. Specifically prohibited are: • Dismissal or threat to dismiss; • Discipline or threats of discipline; • Intimidation or coercion; or • Imposition of any penalty. The Act’s Regulations • 851 Industrial Establishments • 213 Construction Regulations • 860 WHMIS • 861 X ray Safety • 632 Confined Spaces • 834 Critical Injury Defined • 833 Control of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Agents • 629 Diving Operations • 1101 First Aid (Workplace Safety Insurance Act) LECTURE 3- HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Hazard: A random source of danger that can cause physical injury, adverse health effects, illness or disease Types of Hazards • Machinery, Tools • Energy hazards • Material Handling- manual, mechanical • Process or environment related • Procedures not followed • Substandard Work Practices Chemical hazards either directly used in the workplace, or a process or material by-product e.g. gases, vapours, dusts, mists, solids, liquids • Toxicity – intrinsic • Hazardous – exposure through use, handling • Exposure levels exceed ability of body to recover Physical hazards involves some form of energy; e.g. sound, vibration, extreme heat and cold, radiation, electricity • Exposure levels exceed tolerance of body tissues Biological hazards involve living organisms e.g. viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites • Require a reservoir, exit, a host and entry • Hazardous when non-immune person exposed to viable organism or over exposure, conditions favour growth of organism Ergonomic hazards involving the design of tasks • Risk factors – force, repetition, posture • Hazardous when any risk factor exceeds tolerance of body tissues e.g. awkward posture or excessive muscular force Psychosocial Hazards stress or perceived stressors • High demand for production and little / no control • Effort - reward imbalance • Mental and physical health issues • psychological and social health (burnout, depression, aggression and other common mental disorders, and social and behavioural health) • physical health (musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome and diabetes). • Can be multiplied two to three times if employer perceived as being unfair. Routes of exposure • Inhalation • Absorption • Ingestion • Injection OHSA Supervisor duties, to ensure that: • A worker works in the manner and with the protective devices, measures and procedures required • A worker uses or wears the equipment, protective devices or clothing that the worker’s employer requires • Provide written instruction as to measures and procedures to be taken for the protection of the worker • Take every precaution reasonable for the protection of the worker Controlling Hazards -RACE Recognize, Assess, Control and Evaluate Controls should: • Adequately control the hazard • Allow work without undo discomfort • Protect every worker exposed • Not introduce a hazard or relocate hazard to others -Hierarchy of Hazrd Elimination, Substitution, Engineering Controls, Administrative Controls, PPE Principles of Hazard Controls • Elimination • Substitution – beware introducing new hazards • Engineering – ventilate, isolate, automate • general dilution ventilation, • local ventilation - location • Administration – procedures, rules, rotation of workers • Personal Protective Equipment – worker exposure • reliance on PPE Evaluation of Hazards • Measure and observe condition, compare to: • Legislation (regulations as a minimum) • Standards (CSA, ANSI, Niosh etc) • Guidelines (Ministry of Labour, Professional organization) • General industry practices • Best industry practices, industry leaders Risk Concepts “Hazard” and “risk” are not synonymous • Where hazards exist, risk exists • Risk is a function of the severity of harm and the likelihood of the occurrence of that harm • Where hazards are eliminated, risk is eliminated and • Where hazards exist, risk controls are required • RISK is the chance that someone will be harmed by the hazard. Risk assessment of processes • What can happen and under what circumstances? • How severe are the consequences? • How likely are the consequences to occur? • Is risk reduction achieved or is further risk reduction required? Risk = severity of harm x likelihood (frequency) • Detailed inspection and/or testing of the hazard • Physical observation by trained individuals • Investigations of near misses • Conducting interviews of workers or • Reviewing records - injury reports or minutes of Joint Health and Safety Committee meetings Factors Contributing to Creating Hazards  Environment, Personnel, Processes, Management, Materials • Environmental conditions • Lighting, switch plates and electrical outlets • Building ventilation • Walking and working surfaces • Hallways, stairwells – nosing, hand rails • Ceiling tiles, windowsills • External – parking lots, sidewalks, landscaping • Materials • Raw products • Synergy related • By-products • Waste • Machinery, tools and equipment • Work processes, material handling • Personnel • Good hiring practices • Initial training provided • Ongoing training • Management • Commitment to safety - Risk controls • Facility maintenance • Emergency response planning • Supportive to JHSC • Seek worker input - perception surveys • Recognition, rewards Lecture 4 Hazard Identification Project manager on Metron high-rise tragedy faces criminal trial Four people killed, one critically injured, when a scaffold on east side of Kipling Ave. building failed; Apartment balcony repair job on Christmas Eve 2009 The apparatus, which was used to repair balconies, appears broken midway and hangs from the side of the building. Project manager, V. Kazenelson was originally charged with criminal negligence causing death in October 2010. 12-metre scaffold broke near its middle at the end of the work day, after six men boarded it. Four men, including the site supervisor, who fell 13 stories to their deaths , did not have lifelines. Fifth man was not secured properly by a lifeline, but survived his fall, while the sixth had a proper lifeline. • In July, Metron pleaded guilty to criminal negligence causing death • fined $200,000 plus a victim surcharge of $30,000 • Company owner and director, Joel Swartz, was not convicted criminally but fined $112,500 for violations of the Occupational Health Safety Act. • Thirty Occupational Health and Safety Act charges were dropped as part guilty plea to criminal negligence causing death. • Agreed statement of facts, the Crown and Metron said the site super knew only two lifelines were available for the six • workers and • he allowed workers under the influence of drugs to work on the project • Toxicology analysis determined three of the four killed, including the super, had marijuana in their systems. • Agreed statement also said the swing-stage scaffold was improperly designed and had defective welding. Factors Contributing to creating hazards • Personnel • Processes • Materials • Management • Environment Types of Hazards Health Hazards • Chemical • Physical • Biological • Ergonomic • Psychosocial Safety Hazards • Machinery, Tools • Energy hazards • Material Handling- manual, mechanical • Process or environment related • Procedures not followed • Substandard Work Practices Biological Hazards • Elizabeth R. Griffin, a 22-year-old primate researcher, always wore gloves and a mask, to protect from the diseased animals and was usually separated from the primates by a mesh cage. • Helping to move a caged rhesus monkey infected with the herpes B virus, the animal flung a tiny drop of fluid -- perhaps urine or feces -- at her face. • It struck her in the eye, Dec 1997 • 6 weeks later, she died of complications from herpes B Chemical Hazards • November 1994, Sean Kells pouring a highly flammable chemical from one ungrounded drum to another • It ignited and exploded • Sean was killed on the third day of part-time job • He was nineteen years old • WHMIS • TDG Musculoskeletal Disorders - Frequent bending or twisting of the neck - Prolonged grasping and holding objects, or frequent wrist movements - Carrying, lifting, pushing or pulling heavy or awkward loads Fire Prevention Electrical Safety • Storage of combustibles • Hot work – welding and cutting • Fire watches Construction – Trenching and Shoring Construction – Machines • Cranes – Hoisting and Rigging • Contact with Hydro wires • Traffic Control Radiation • Vibration • Noise Control • Asbestos • Heat and Cold Exposure Elevated Places - Ladders - Scaffolds - Fall protection Lockout / Tagout - Energy Isolation Workers entering confined spaces must be protected by isolating energy sources, such as: • Blanking/Disconnecting piping • Lockout of electrical type equipment • Mechanical lockout of pneumatic and hydraulic • Protection against drowning/engulfment - If not practicable for technical reasons, other adequate means may be employed Create a Zero Energy State • Tags • Multi lock tags • Locks • Valve chains David Ellis David played drums and baseball; He enjoyed working with the underprivileged, Just finished high school, planning to go to university in the fall. Second day of summer job in Oakville bakery, He was pulled into an industrial dough mixer Feb 11, 1999, He died 6 days later. He was eighteen. Tools • Choose the correct tool for the job • Check that the tool is working properly • Ensure your footing is secure • Use appropriate PPE for the task • Be aware of the material / surface you are working on • Use electricity safely Mechanical Hazards – Wrap points Long hair, draw strings, untied shoe laces, loose clothing Yale Student Killed - Hair Caught in Lathe • Summer 2010, Michele Dufault worked on underwater robotic vehicles at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts • Traveled to Houston, as part of a team of undergraduates chosen by NASA to perform a plasma physics experiment in reduced gravity • Weeks from graduating, working on senior thesis late at night in machine shop, investigating the possible use of liquid helium for detecting dark matter particles Focus on the Task - Distraction - eyes on your phone, they are not on the task. - No calls or texting when working with equipment Injury Incident Reporting Incident Report found on website see instructor, TA, Department Admin Report all injuries and hazardous situations Why report? -injury prevention -compensation -legal requirement Reporting Injuries and Illness Get first aid or medical care Report the incident to your instructor / TA Complete the Injury/ Incident Report Form with your supervisor if possible Fax it to Occupational Health and Wellness (OHW) within 24 hours of the incident. Incidents in the Workplace Occupational Health & Wellness will follow up with you to complete the WSIB Form 7 to submit to WSIB. Information may be reported to the MOL EHS staff may be calling to follow up and ensure preventative steps are put in place Near Miss Reporting • As important as incident reporting • Allows review of occurrence and preventive intervention • Report forms are viewed by the JHSC or H&S Rep The Act’s Critical Injury Defined Reg. 834/90 • Places life in jeopardy • Produces unconsciousness • Results in substantial loss of blood • Involves the fracture of a leg or arm, but not a finger or toe • Involves the amputation of a leg, arm, hand or foot, but not a finger or toe • Consists of burns to a major part of the body; or • Causes the loss of sight in an eye If a person is critically injured (or killed) • Provide first aid, record first aid given. • DO NOT disturb the scene • Notify the supervisor • Emergency assistance 911; University Security Services at 519-824-4120 ext 2000 or 52000 • Supervisor will contact EHS directly or via Security Services; EHS will call the MoL • Complete the Injury/ Incident Report Form and submit to OHW within 24 hours of the incident. LECTURE 5 Machine Guarding Basic Principles of Occupational Hygiene – Anticipation, Identification & Recognition – Evaluation – Control – Review Machine Hazard: Anticipation, Identification & Recognition: – Understand machine functions – observe machine in operation – Common Hazard sources include: • Point of operation • Power sources and transmission: motors, hydraulics, belts, chains, drive shafts etc. • Miscellaneous processes: cleanout, feeding, maintenance, troubleshooting etc. Hazardous Motions: Rotation/ Traverse/ Reciprocating Motion Related Machine Hazards – Entanglement- caused by protrusions or snag points of rotating or traverse moving parts such as set screws, bolts, nicks, abrasions, and projecting keys -Hazard is proportional to speed, can be fatal even at slow speed. -Examples: Collars, couplings, cams, clutches, flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, meshing gears, and horizontal or vertical shafting – Shear/Bending- Hazard is at the point of operation for bending shearing and any other surface where one part moves over another. Examples: Power Shears, Saws, Brake Press, Power Press, Milling Machine and Tube Benders – Drawing-in: Hazard at the point where counter rotating components meet. Direction of motion needs to be acknowledged as hazard is direction dependent. These are also known as in-running nip hazards. Examples: feed rollers, conveyer belts, chains and sprockets – Friction & abrasion: Often not highly hazardous unless combined with entanglement or other hazards. Hazard is due to rubbing against the moving surfaces. Examples: Conveyor belts, Sanding belts, Grinding wheels – Impact: Speed, shape and mass will determine the level of hazard Hazard is getting struck by moving parts Examples include: Robot arms, Sliding tables, Conveyor belts – Crushing: Occurs if a body part is caught in between a reciprocating component and a stationary object. Examples: Presses, Robot Arms, Tool Tables etc. – Stabbing and Punching: Hazard at the point of operation It can be from reciprocating/flying objects fragments. Examples: Punch Presses, drills, nail guns, sparks, debris from grinders etc Risk Assessment/ Evaluation: Assess various tasks of the machine – Routine operation/ Tool changes/ Maintenance/ Set-up/ Unjamming/ Clean-out/ Recovery from crash Control: –Prevent contact / Be Secure/ Avoid falling objects/ Create no new hazard/ Create no Interference/ Allow for lubrication Types of Controls: • Barrier Guards: - Fixed/ Interlocked/ Adjustable/ Self-adjusting • Devices to detect breach: – Light curtains, Safety Mats etc. • Operator Control • Location and Distance Regulatory requirements Under Occupational Health and Safety Act of Ontario – Ontario Regulation 851 for Industrial Establishments S24. Guard all moving parts that may endanger a Worker S25. Guard in-running nip points S26. Guarding requirements Various CSA and ANSI standards are available for guidance on proper guarding of machine hazards. Pre-Start Health and Safety Reviews (PHSR) • PHSR is a study of new or modified equipment to ensure compliance with O. Reg 851 • Most PSRs require a report by Professional Engineer except where occupational exposure to chemicals may be of concern. In those instances a Registered Occupational Hygienist (ROH)/ Certified Occupational Hygienist(CIH) is preferred as the investigator. Machine Guarding and PSR • Circumstance 2 is the most common condition of PSR requirement. • Machines with interlocked controls, safety devices such as light curtains all require PSR. • Examples: Presses, Robots, CNC Machines, filling/Packing Machines. PSR as Hazard Control • PSR requires an evaluation of the hazards completed by the P. Eng or Occupational Hygienist and recommendations for control of hazard are generated. Summary • Various machines hazards are present due to moving parts. • Machine hazards can be guarded effectively by design. • Ontario law requires that machines be adequately guarded to prevent accidents. • Machine accidents cost everyone including employers for lost time, reputation, fines and reduced employee moral. LECTURE 6- LOTO SLIDES LOTO- Lockout/Tag out Why LOTO   Energies used in various types of equipment can be fatal  during maintenance activities.   Lockout/Tagout is a control measure to protect employees  performing maintenance activities from the uncontrolled  sources of energy. What type of activities need LOTO  Any servicing and/or maintenance of machines or equipment when the source of energy to the machines or equipment is electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.  Constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting,modifying, maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment, including lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where employees could be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy LOTO Described  Lockout is the most effective procedure used to prevent energy sources from becoming hazardous to a worker’s health and safety.   The key to Lockout is neutralizing, or stopping, all energies in a piece of equipment.   Achieving this zero state of energy helps guarantee that energy sources cannot be introduced while maintenance, repair, troubleshooting, adjusting, installation or relocation are being performed  Lockout is mandatory by law. In fact, employers, supervisors and workers can be fined for failure to  comply with lockout requirements. What can go wrong?  Failure to wait until moving parts of equipment stop   Failure to disconnect from the power source   Failure to release remaining energy   Accidental restarting of equipment   Failure to clear work areas before reactivation Energy forms to watch for  Electrical energy  Radiation, kinetic  Energy, chemical energy  Thermal energy  Potential energy Who is responsible? Everyone in the workplace has responsibilities they need to carry out in order to make Lockout/Tagout effective. It is important that everyone be aware of their role. Various Devices for LOTO  Circuit Breaker Switch  Fuse Lock  Plug Lock  Plug Hugger  Wall Switch  Mechanical Valve and Hasp Important considerations for devices  LO devices must be durable & withstand the environment to which they are exposed. TO devices must be constructed & printed so they do not deteriorate or become illegible;  LOTO devices must be standardized by color, shape or size;  LO/TO devices must be substantial enough to prevent early or accidental removal and removal without excessive force. Tagout devices Required information TO devices  Name of authorized employee who locked out equipment;  Authorized employee’s radio or phone number, including contractors;  Date and time of lockout; and  Brief description of work being performed. Lock and Key control Lock boxes are another helpful device used for jobs involving many people. These boxes keep everyone’s keys in  one safe place. An authorized employee is placed in charge of the lock box and returns the keys only after every job  is completed. Managing LOTO   Coordinate the LOTO program;   Training & assistance with annual inspections;   Maintain copies of equipment specific lock out procedures,  annual inspections & training records; and   Update & evaluate the LOTO program annually. Responsibilities as supervisors   Complete equipment specific LOTO procedures;   Conduct annual & periodic inspections;   Keep a list of authorized employees;   Issue LOTO devices to employees;   Ensure all affected employees are properly trained on LOTO procedures;   Enforce compliance with LOTO program; and   Provide employees with copies of the LOTO Program upon request. Contractors and LOTO   Contractor & on‐site employer must exchange LOTO info   On‐site employees must understand & comply with the contractor’s rules.   Employees must be alert & aware of any new types of LOTO devices. The Procedure for LOTO Proper Lockout/Tagout is made up of six steps 1. Preparing for Shutdown 2. Shutting Down Equipment 3. Isolating Equipment 4. Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices 5. Controlling Stored Energy 6. Verifying Isolation of Equipment Preparing for Shutdown When preparing for shutdown, alert everyone around that you are about to perform Lockout/Tagout and let them know which machines are going to be affected. Before locking out, you must do the following:   Identify the kinds of energy sources you are dealing with   Identify the hazards involved   Determine how the hazards should be controlled If you are unsure about anything, ask your supervisor. Isolating   Carefully and methodically isolate the system from every source that  feeds it   Close all valves   De‐energize and disconnect circuit breakers and the main disconnect  Switch   Disconnect any auxiliary power such as a second source, steam,  hydraulic, or pneumatic systems. Control stored energy Be sure to: • Relieve, disconnect or restrain any remaining hazardous energy that may be present • Check that all moving parts have stopped moving • Relieve stored pressure • Blank pipe flanges • Discharge electrical capacitors; and • Block or support elevated equipment Verify Isolation Remember to:   Warn employees and make sure everyone is clear of the lockout area   Test to make sure the right system has been locked out and cannot be operated   Press all start buttons or other activating controls, then return them to the “off” position — this will prevent the equipment from starting by itself when energy is restored Removing LOTO   Safeguard all employees by making certain everyone is  clear of the equipment. Also notify affected employees of  impending re‐energization.   Verify that all tools have been removed and all guards  reinstalled.   Remove LOTO devices. Each device must be removed by  the person who put it on.   Energize equipment. If Troubleshooting   Remove all tools & personnel from the area.   Notify affected employees of impending re‐energization.   Authorized employees remove the LO device but MUST leave tag in place.   Energize equipment.   When finished, de‐energize & reapply LO device. Shift changes   If servicing lasts more than one shift, LOTO protection  CANNOT be interrupted.   The original authorized employee will remove their lock &  the incoming employee will place theirs on the isolating  device. If the first employee leaves prior to the  replacement’s arrival, a supervisor may place their lock on  to ensure safety.   The incoming authorized employee MUST VERIFY that  ALL energy sources are locked out prior to beginning work. LECTURE 7 - Asbestos The term “asbestos” refers to a number of naturally occurring mineral silicates that differ in chemical composition and are characterized by long, thin fibres that can be easily separated. Asbestos is divided into two mineral groups:- serpentines and amphiboles. - Serpentines - Chrysolile (white asbestos) is the only fibrous member of the serpentine group of minerals. It is the most common type of asbestos used, accounting for approximately 90% of the world asbestos production. - Amphiboles -Amphibole asbestos fibres differ from the flexible, curly chrysotile fibres in that they are straight and needle-like, a characteristic that apparently gives amphibole asbestos a greater tendency to become airborne; this is an important consideration in controlling exposure - friable, meaning that when dry they can be crumbled or powdered by hand pressure, thereby releasing asbestos fibres to the air where they can be inhaled. - be non-friable (fibres are firmly embedded in a liquid or solid material) and are unlikely to be released during normal use. Categories of Asbestos Include: 1) Fireproofing or Sprayed Insulation 2) Mechanical Insulation 3) Texture Plasters 4) Smooth Plasters 5) Asbestos Cement Products 6) Acoustic Ceiling Tiles 7) Plastics 8) Drywall Joint Compound 9) Asbestos Textiles 10) Friction Materials 11) Paper and Felt Products 12) Coatings, Sealants and Adhesives Asbestosis: a disease of the lungs caused by scar tissue forming around very small asbestos fibres deposited deep in the lungs. Mesothelioma: a relatively rare cancer of the lining of the chest and/or abdomen. The development of mesothelioma is characterized by a long latency period (20-40 years). Lung Cancer: Appears quite frequently in people exposed to asbestos dust. Other Asbestos-Related Cancers: there is also some evidence of an increased risk of cancer of the stomach, rectum and larynx, Other Asbestos-Related Conditions: A number of less serious effects have been associated with asbestos exposure, namely pleural plaques and asbestos warts. IMPORTANT "We will conclude that it is rarely necessary to take corrective action in buildings containing asbestos insulation in order to protect the general occupants of those buildings. On the other hand, construction, demolition, renovation, maintenance, and custodial workers in asbestos-containing buildings may be exposed to significant fibre levels and may, during their work, cause elevated fibre levels for nearby occupants." - In analyzing the presence of coated and uncoated asbestos fibres in the lung, it has been demonstrated in carefully conducted studies that almost 98% of all urban dwellers have asbestos fibrils or bodies in their lungs Evaluating Hazard due to Asbestos 1. Type of asbestos 2. State of asbestos 3. Nature of activity 4. Controls in place/Work practices/Housekeeping 5. Use of personal protective equipment and clothing 6. Duration of exposure - These factors have been used to categorize the activity into one of three types of asbestos work operations as specified under the Ontario asbestos regulation: Type I, Type 2, Type 3. Type 1 Asbestos Operations - Generally, these operations involve insignificant abrasion of non-friable materials, do not generate appreciable amounts of airborne asbestos, and consequently, present little hazard to workers or bystanders. These operations include the following: 1.use of non-powered, hand-held tools 2.material is wetted to control the spread of fibres Type 2 Asbestos Operations - Generally, these operations involve non-friable material in which there is some degree of breaking, cutting, abrading, etc., or friable material; these operations may generate enough airborne asbestos to require protective equipment but are relatively short-lived. These operations include the following: Powersaw with Dust collector and HEPA_Filter Vacuum Type 3 Asbestos Operations- Generally, these operations are large scale activities which may generate significant asbestos levels, may occur frequently, are of longer duration and pose a serious risk both to workers and to bystanders. - Appropriate “Warning” signs are required for these operations. - Any friable material that is lying on any surface in the work area shall be removed by HEPA vacuuming or damp wiping. - The work area shall be physical separated from the rest of the workplace and an enclosure of polyethylene or other suitable material must be erected to fully "seal-off" the work area. - A three-room decontamination facility shall be incorporated into the enclosure. HAZARD CONTROL 1) Assessing the Potential Hazard to occupants due to the presence of friable asbestos in building materials. This includes: - preparation and maintenance of a record of friable materials - possibly, bulk sampling of the friable material to determine if it contains asbestos; - periodic visual inspection of the asbestos-containing material (ACM); - remedial action on ACM that has deteriorated 2) Assessing the Potential Hazard to occupants and maintenance workers due to asbestos-related work activities in the building. This involves: - classification of all asbestos-related work; - notification and training of workers with respect to the presence of the friable ACM, and the protective measures to be taken and procedures to be followed when conducting asbestos- related activities. REMEDIAL ACTIONS INCLUDE: - Repair – When damage to pipe or boiler insulation is limited, repair is the easiest control option. - Encapsulation - Encapsulation refers to the application of a sealant to asbestos-containing material. There are two types of sealant: 1) Penetrants penetrate and harden the material 2) Bridging sealers produce a tough, impermeable coating on the surface. - Enclosure -A properly constructed enclosure involves erecting airtight walls and ceilings around the asbestos-containing material. - Removal -This is the one option that removes the need for an asbestos management program. Ontario Regulation 278/05, Designated Substance – Asbestos on Construction Projects and in Buildings and Repair Operations, made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act of Ontario. Applies when: 1. APPLICATION The regulation applies where material containing asbestos is likely to be handled, dealt with, disturbed or removed. 2. PROHIBITIONS AND LIMITATIONS Two applications of asbestos-containing materials are prohibited by the regulation: 1) The spray application of material containing 0.1% or more asbestos by dry weight that may become friable. 2) The installation of thermal insulation containing 0.1% or more asbestos by dry weight that may become friable. 3. MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR ASBESTOS IN BUILDINGS Once an owner establishes the presence of asbestos-containing material, an asbestos management program for the building must be instituted. The elements of the program include: 4. CLASSIFICATION OF WORK The regulation classifies asbestos-related work into types of work operations based on the degree of hazard: Type 1 (low risk), Type 2 (moderate risk) and Type 3 (high risk). For further details, refer to “Hazard Identification, Evaluation and Classification of Work” (Section 4). 5. WORK PROCEDURES “General Work Procedures as per Ontario Regulation" (Section 6) summarizes the work procedures to be followed when working with asbestos. 6. INSPECTION AND NOTIFICATION Before demolition, alteration or repair work is tendered or otherwise arranged, an inspection must be made to determine if asbestos-containing material will be handled or disturbed by the work that is planned. 7. REMEDIAL MEASURES Where it is determined by an inspection or other reports that material that may contain asbestos has fallen, is damaged or has deteriorated such that exposure to the material is likely to occur, remedial measures must be taken. In the case of sprayed-on material, the available options are encapsulation, enclosure or removal, while for damaged pipe and boiler insulation, the available options also include repair of the insulation with a non-asbestos material. 8. INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING An employer is required to provide training to all workers working on a Type 1, Type 2 or Type 3 operation. This training must include instruction in the hazards of asbestos exposure, the use of respirators and protective clothing, and work practices and personal hygiene. 9. MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE The regulation prescribes a medical surveillance program for all workers who are exposed to asbestos on Type 2 or Type 3 operations. BULK SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS - The primary reason for bulk samples in any asbestos inspection/investigation is to determine whether the sample contains asbestos or not and if so, its content and the type of asbestos. The test method that has been adopted by Ontario regulation 278/05 is: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -- Test Method EPA/600/R-93/116: Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Building Materials (June 1993). LECTURE 8 – CONFINED SPACES A confined space is defined as a fully or partially enclosed space, 1) that is not both designed and constructed for continuous human occupancy, and 2) in which atmospheric hazards* may occur because of its construction, location or contents or because of work that is done in it. Atmospheric hazards mean (a) the accumulation of flammable, combustible or explosive agents, (b) an oxygen content in the atmosphere that is less than 19.5 percent or more than 23 per cent by volume, or (c) the accumulation of atmospheric contaminants, including gases, vapours, fumes, dusts or mists, that could, (i) result in acute health effects that pose an immediate threat to life, or (ii) interfere with a person’s ability to escape unaided from a confined space; Confined spaces may include: storage tanks, process vessels, boilers, water tower basins, silos, sewer lines, utility service chambers and open top spaces such as pits and tubs. Confined Space Identification - At the University of Guelph, every confined space must be identified and provided with a unique identification number. The identification number is comprised of four parts: building/structure/ property number – type – room number – number:  Building/structure/property number is a unique identifier for the building/structure/ property (eg. Alumni House -- building # 66)  Group/Type of confined space (see Table 1 in Appendix A -- eg. Sewer pits have been classified in group “P”. Group designations are intended to provide a guide to the requirements for entry and work in confined spaces by “grouping” spaces with similar hazards.  Room number is the number of the room in which the confined space is located; if there is no room number associated with its location, identify as “000”  Number is a unique identifier at that location (eg. Spaces are numbered consecutively i.e. 01, 02, 03, etc.).  An example of a typical confined space identification number is: 66-P-012-01. Note: In some circumstances, the use of signs may not be practical, such as for service chambers and grates. A tool is usually required for removal of the cover, and therefore, it would likely be considered secure against entry. CONFINED SPACE HAZARDS The three general classes of atmospheric hazards include: 1) oxygen-deficiency or oxygen-enrichment  Oxygen-Deficiency through Consumption of Oxygen - chemical reactions that involve oxidation ; industrial processes that involve combustion  Oxygen-Deficiency through Displacement of Oxygen - Oxygen may be displaced by: - inert gases that may be used to purge pipelines, tanks and vessels of residual chemicals - inert gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium and argon that are sometimes used to displace air from the head spaces - heavier-than-air gases such as carbon dioxide that may be formed by naturally-occurring chemical reactions  Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres - oxygen content greater than 23% by volume) in a space increases fire risks. - being inadvertently created by poorly designed or malfunctioning oxygen storage and dispensing equipment - leakage around couplings, fittings and hoses of oxy-fuel gas welding equipment. - workers using oxygen to ventilate a space under the mistaken belief that oxygen and air are interchangeable. 2) accumulation of flammable, combustible or explosive agents - Flammable and combustible substances are those gases, liquids and solids that will readily catch fire and continue to burn in air if exposed to a source of ignition. Many flammable and combustible liquids and solids are volatile by nature (i.e. they evaporate quickly and are continually giving off vapours). The rate of evaporation varies greatly from one substance to another and increases with temperature. It is their vapours combined with air, not the liquids or solids themselves, that ignite and burn.  Simultaneous combination of four elements must be present: 1) fuel (such as a flammable vapour); 2) oxygen (from air); 3) a source of heat/ignition 4) a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Since fire is the result of an oxidation reaction, it will not propagate unless a sufficient quantity of oxygen is present. The presence of oxygen alone, however, will not cause ignition. For ignition to occur, the fuel must be exposed to a source of heat. The proper mixture of fuel and oxygen varies from gas to gas; the flammable/explosive range (see illustration below) is the range between the lower explosive limit (LEL) and the upper explosive limit (UEL). For most solvents the LEL lies in the range 1 – 8% in air AIR 100% Air 0% Air LEAN FLAMMABLE/ RICH EXPLOSIVE RANGE 0% Gas LEL UEL 100% Gas GAS 3) Accumulation of “toxic” atmospheric contaminants, including gases, vapours, fumes, dusts or mists Toxic atmospheric contaminants can have varying effects on the body but the major immediate risks presented by some of these contaminants in a confined space are as irritants, anaesthetics, and simple or chemical asphyxiants:  Irritants (e.g. ammonia, sulphur dioxide) -- refer to some sort of aggravation of whatever tissue with which the material comes in contact.  Anaesthetics (many organics such as chloroform) -- the main toxic action is the depressant effect on the brain and the central nervous system  Simple Asphyxiants (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, hydrogen) -- are physiologically inert (i.e. produce no effect on the body) and may be present in sufficient quantity to displace the air (oxygen) .  Chemical Asphyxiants (e.g. carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen cyanide) -- incapacitate the body’s ability to utilize an adequate supply of oxygen (interfere with oxygen transport to the cells). Toxic atmospheric contaminants that could result in acute health effects that pose an immediate threat to life or interfere with a person’s ability to escape unaided from a confined space, include dusts, fumes, mists, vapours and gases.  Dusts- Dusts are solid particles generated by processes like cutting, grinding sanding, sawing or abrasive blasting.  Fumes - Fumes are solid particles formed through the condensation of vapour from a liquid phase. Metals and plastics are the two most common fume-forming materials.  Mists - Mists are liquid droplets that are formed by splashing, atomizing or spraying.  Vapours - Vapours are the gaseous form of a substance that is normally solid or liquid at room temperature and pressure.  Gases - Gases are formless fluids that completely fill any container into which they are placed 1) Irritant Gases -- are usually characterized by irritation to the eyes, nose and respiratory system. 2) Simple Asphyxiant Gases -- can displace ambient air, creating an oxygen deficient atmosphere. 3) Chemical Asphyxiant Gases -- interfere with oxygen transport to the cells. Carbon monoxide is one of the most common chemical asphyxiants encountered. Hydrogen sulphide is another chemical asphyxiant which is very toxic, colourless and combustible and is commonly found in confined spaces such as sewers, oil and gas refineries and many industrial environments. As per the definition of a confined space, the only class of hazard that determines its classification as a confined space is an atmospheric hazard; it is necessary, however, to perform an assessment of the physical hazards in a confined space because many of these hazards do exist in confined spaces and are exacerbated by the physical nature of the space (generally, enclosed and not constructed for continuous human occupancy). PHYSICAL HAZARDS 1) mechanical and electrical: the unexpected movement of mechanical equipment or the unexpected discharge of electrical equipment in a confined space presents a very hazardous situation for anyone within the space. Electrical hazards may be minimized or controlled in a number of ways including  Applying lockout/tagout procedures to prevent the unexpected discharge of electrical energy. The mechanical hazards posed by operating machinery or the accidental start-up of machinery can be managed or eliminated  ensure that mechanical parts are appropriately guarded and/or a lockout/tagout program is in place.  2) Other Safety Hazards  Entrance/Exit Accessibility and Configuration of the Confined Space  Internal Configuration/Features of the Confined Space  Temperature Extremes  Noise  Engulfment Hazards - materials such as sawdust and grain can act like quicksand and engulf a victim. LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT  Lockout is the process of installing a lock on an energy isolating device such as a disconnect switch or shut-off valve that prevents the device from being operated until the lock is removed by the person who applied it.  Tagout, on the other hand, is the process of attaching a tag to an isolating device. The tag identifies specific equipment that is being used to achieve isolation and warns others not to operate it.  A lockout/tagout procedure 1) the hazardous equipment is isolated or deactivated (e.g. closing valves or opening electrical disconnect switches); 2) a lock (lockout) or tag (tagout) is attached to a valve or switch to prevent it from being reactivated by anyone other than the worker who applied the lock or tag; 3) the lock/tag remains in place until the work is completed; at this time the lock/tag is removed by the worker who applied it. PURGING AND VENTILATING - atmospheric hazards exist or likely to exist in a confined space, the confined space shall be purged, ventilated or both  Purging involves removing contaminants inside the confined space by displacement with air to achieve acceptable atmospheric levels or displacement with inert gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon to purge spaces of flammable atmospheres.  Ventilation means the continuous provision of fresh air into the confined space by mechanical means to maintain acceptable atmospheric levels. Must be effective distribution of “fresh” air throughout all work areas of the confined space. The major problems associated with the ventilation of confined spaces include:  the re-entrainment of contaminated exhaust air into the confined space  inadequate distribution of “fresh” supplied-air. Procedures to Safely Ventilate a Confined Space: 1) Locate the intake for the “fresh” supplied-air away from flammable/toxic/odourous materials; 2) Locate the intake for the “fresh” supplied-air and exhaust-air outlet(s) so as to minimize re- entrainment; 3) Ensure that the “fresh” supplied-air is appropriately distributed throughout the confined space; this may require the use of multiple fan units and appropriate ducting; 4) Place the exhaust-air outlet(s) where air currents will disperse the exhaust quickly, without endangering passers-by; 5) All electrical equipment should be “grounded”; 6) Ventilation equipment should be electrically bonded to the confined space; 7) Always ventilate with “fresh” air -- never with pure oxygen. The oxygen content of normal atmospheric air at standard temperature and pressure is about 21% by volume. A confined space is considered oxygen deficient if the oxygen content is less than 19.5%, while a space is considered to be oxygen-enriched if the oxygen content is greater than 23%. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION 1) Air-Purifying Respirators (Filter/Cartridge-Type) - Ambient air, prior to being inhaled, is passed through a filter, cartridge, or canister that removes gases, vapours, particulates, or a combination of these contaminants 2) Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators - Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide a breathing atmosphere that is independent of atmospheric conditions 3) Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus(SCBA): The supply of air, oxygen, or oxygen-generating materials is carried by the user 4) Supplied-Air Respirators: Respirable air is supplied through a small diameter hose from a compressor or compressed-air cylinder(s) and therefore air supply is not limited to the quantity a person can carry In contrast to a Confined Space, a Restricted Space is a nonpermit required space in which atmospheric hazards are not likely to occur and which is large enough for a worker to enter and perform assigned work, but is not designed for continuous occupancy by the worker.  A Restricted Space is an area in which the access or egress to and from the space may be limited and movement inside the space may be awkward or difficult. Examples of Restricted Spaces may include: tunnels, utility service chambers and selected attic spaces. Given these limitations, Restricted Spaces require specific procedures to be followed to ensure the safety of those who enter and work in these spaces. Lectures 9 CONFINED AND RESTRICTIVE SPACES A Confined Space is defined as a fully or partially enclosed space, (a) that is not both designed and constructed for continuous human occupancy, and (b) in which atmospheric hazards* may occur because of its construction, location or contents or because of work that is done in it. Atmospheric hazards mean (a)The accumulation of flammable, combustible or explosive agents, (b) an oxygen content in the atmosphere that is less than 19.5 percent or more than 23 per cent by volume, or (c) the accumulation of atmospheric contaminants, including gases, vapours, fumes, dusts or mists, that could, (i) result in acute health effects that pose an immediate threat to life, or (ii) interfere with a person’s ability to escape unaided from a confined space; A Restricted Space is an area in which the access or egress to and from the space may be limited and movement inside the space may be awkward or difficult Confined spaces may include: storage tanks, process vessels, boilers, water tower basins, silos, sewer lines, utility service chambers and open top spaces such as pits and tubs. In contrast to a Confined Space, a Restricted Space is a nonpermit required space in which atmospheric hazards are not likely to occur and which is large enough for a worker to enter and perform assigned work, but is not designed for continuous occupancy by the worker. . Examples of Restricted Spaces may include: tunnels, utility service chambers and selected attic spaces. Given these limitations, Restricted Spaces require specific procedures to be followed to ensure the safety of those who enter and work in these spaces. RESPONSIBILITIES: Supervisors shall: • identify restricted spaces • provide risk assessments of restricted spaces, and as appropriate, ensure that risk assessments are updated at the time of commissioning or decommissioning equipment in the restricted space • control access to and authorize work in these spaces • as appropriate, provide entry, work and emergency procedures for these spaces • ensure that workers are informed with respect to the entry, work and emergency procedures for the Restricted Spaces in which they perform work Workers shall: • work in accordance with the entry, work and emergency procedures for the Restricted Spaces in which they perform work. WORKING IN RESTRICTED SPACES Restricted Spaces may pose a safety risk to those who are required to enter and work in them. The following items must be considered in the procedure for entry and work in Restricted Spaces: 1) Restricted spaces must be identified and labelled Access to the space must be controlled and only authorized individuals who will work in accordance with entry, work and emergency procedures for that Restricted Space shall be permitted access. 2) A reliable means of communication must be available for Restricted Spaces work The method of communication must be established prior to the commencement of work. Examples include: • "buddy" system using visual or verbal contact while in the Restricted Space • portable radio or similar portable communication device -- if a device such as this is to be used, reliability must be confirmed prior to commencement of work • emergency telephones in or near the space -- these devices must be tested on a regular basis to ensure functionality LECTURE 12 WHMIS and Chemical Safety Objectives  Identify classes of chemicals and their characteristics. Discuss various storage requirements and considerations. Identify applicable legislation  Identify general lab hazards and necessary equipment  Identify different types of fume hoods, understand how its fume hood operation and list factors that affect its containment. Identify applicable legislation.  Define hazardous waste. Discuss requirements of applicable legislation (characterization; movement documents; HWIN; treatment; land disposal restriction)  Decommissioning considerations for laboratories. ANSI standards WHMIS Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Physical and Chemical Properties  Flashpoint  temperature at which a substance will produce enough vapour above its surface to ignite in the presence of an ignition source  Flammable - flashpoint of <37.8°C  Combustible – flashpoint >37.8°C and <93.3°C  Examples of flashpoints  Acetone -18°C  Acetic Acid 40°  Gasoline -42°C  Autoignition temperature  Temperature at which substance will spontaneously ignite without an ignition source  Examples autoiginition temperatures:  Acetone 465°C  Methanol 455°C  Gasoline 257°C  Lower/Upper Explosive Limits (LEL/UEL)  The range of vapour concentrations between which the air/gas mixture will burn/explode if ignited.  Specific gravity  Ratio of the weight of substance to weight of an equal volume of water  <1 – insoluble materials will float in water, >1 will sink  Vapour density  Ratio of the weight of a volume of vapour to an equal volume of dry air  < 1indicates substance is lighter than air, >1 heavier than air - Boiling point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas. - Melting point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid. - Physical state: The state of a material at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. - Solubility: A measure of a substance’s ability to mix completely with water. - Specific gravity*: The ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. • If insoluble, materials with a specific gravity of less than 1 will float on water. • If insoluble, materials with a specific gravity of greater than 1 will sink in water - Vapour density*: The ratio of the weight of a volume of pure vapour or gas (no air present) to an equal volume of dry air (sometimes hydrogen gas) at the same temperature and pressure. • A vapour density of less than 1 indicates that the substance is lighter than air. • A vapour density of greater than 1 it indicates that the substance is heavier than air. - Vapour pressure*: A measure of how readily a liquid or a solid mixes with air at its surface. • A higher vapour pressure indicates a higher concentration of the substance in air and therefore increases the likelihood of breathing it in. - autoignition temperature: Temperature at which a substance will spontaneously ignite without an ignition source. • The lower the autoignition temperature, the greater the fire hazard. • Examples of autoignition temperatures: • Acetone 465°C • Methanol 455°C • Gasoline 257°C - Combustible: Having a flashpoint between 37.8°C and 93.3°C. • e.g. formaldehyde, acetic acid - Flammable: Having a flashpoint of less than 37.8°C. • e.g. acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate - Flashpoint: Temperature at which a substance will produce enough vapour above its surface to ignite in the presence of an ignition source. • The lower the flashpoint, the greater the fire hazard. • Examples of flashpoints: • Acetone -18°C • Acetic Acid 40° • Gasoline -42°C - pH: A measure of an aqueous solution’s acidity or alkalinity using a scale from 0-14. • pH <7 indicates an acid pH=7 indicates neutral material pH>7 indicates base - Pyrophoric: A material that will ignite spontaneously with exposure to air. • e.g. t-butyl lithium, finely divided iron - upper and lower explosive limits (UEL/LEL): The range of vapour concentrations between which the air/gas mixture will burn/explode if ignited. • Inhalation – most common • Lungs – large surface area • Pass to blood • Absorption • Skin primary barrier to aqueous materials – cuts, scrapes, rashes • Mucous membranes • Good barrier for neutral aqueous solutions and weak acids • particles btw 0.5 and 7µm can be trapped in lungs and cause scarring • Ingestion • Not common • Digestive tract • Most often by eating/drinking contaminated food • Injection • Needlesticks • Directly into blood stream/musculartissue - TWAEV (8-hour Time-Weighted Average Exposure Value) - average concentration to which most workers can be exposed during an 8-hour workday, day after day, without adverse effects - STEV (Short-Term Exposure Value) - maximum average concentration to which most workers can be exposed over a 15 minute period, day after day, without adverse effects - CEV (Ceiling Exposure Value): - concentration that must never be exceeded (applies to many chemicals with acute toxic effects) • Toxic Health Effects  Effects depend on:  Dose, rate and route of exposure  Other personal factors (sex, age, sensitization, genetic disposition, lifestyle, etc.)  Acute effects – short term exposure; usually large single dose; immediate symptoms e.g. dermatitis, headaches, dizziness, anaphylactic shock, chemical burns  Chronic reactions –repeated, low level exposure; may take years to see health effects e.g. asbestosis, cancer  LD (Lethal Dose 50) 50  amount of a substance when administered by a defined route of entry (e.g. oral or dermal) over a specified period of time, is expected to cause the death of 50% of a population (mg/kg)  LC50Lethal Concentration 50)  concentration of a substance in air or water, when administered by inhalation over a specified period of time, is expected to cause the death in 50% of a population  Animal model - Extrapolation to humans  Relative ideas CLASS A – Compressed Gas  Materials contained under pressure or low temperatures which are not gases under normal temperatures and pressure.  hazardous not only because of the chemical, physical and toxicological properties of the gas but also because of the pressure under which many compressed gases are maintained  E.g. nitrogen, 2O  This symbol represents compressed gas. It means that the material poses an explosion danger because the gas is being held in a cylinder under pressure. The container may explode if dropped or heated in a fire. The symbol is a cylinder on its side. Examples of compressed gases are acetylene, oxygen, methane and nitrogen. It is essential that the appropriate regulators are chosen for the particular gases with which they will be used. Using a regulator for acetylene that was previously used for oxygen could literally have explosive consequences. To ensure that this type of mishap cannot happen the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) engineered a solution. Each connector on a cylinder and therefore on the regulators are specific for the gas being contained and as such have a specific number. For example, thread sizes and thread directions are different, and nipple sizes are different depending on the gas. This is a safety precaution or “engineered control” that ensures that only regulators appropriate for the gas being used can actually be attached to the cylinder. Connections made with a cylinder and regulator are designed to be gas tight with metal to metal contact. Therefore no Teflon tape or other adaptors are to be used as this could force a fit that was not intended. Teflon tape can actually weaken the seal. As well cylinder valves are never to be lubricated as the lubrication could be incompatible with the gas. Storage of Compressed Gases  According to Fire code section 5.6 - Secured - Storage requirements - Removed from doors, aisles, stairs and elevators - Segregated - Specific requirements for flammable gases Storage of compressed gases is regulated through the fire code which says that cylinders must be secured, and must be kept away from points of egress and therefore kept away from doors, out of hallways and should never be stored under stairwells. There are specifications for what is required of a compressed gas storage room to which our storage areas have been designed. Cylinders should also be kept away from direct sunlight, high temperatures and damp or wet conditions. The next category of materials to mention are the cryogenics. This is most commonly dry ice and liquid nitrogen, but also includes liquid air, helium, oxygen, argon and neon. These materials have several hazards. Cryogenics, by definition are very cold and hence we need to be aware of their ability to freeze or cause brittling of materials and hence choose what materials we use with them accordingly. We also need to protect ourselves from frost bite that may occur upon exposure to these materials. At room temperature these materials are constantly evaporating or in the case of dry ice, sublimating. There are two results. First, their volume can increase 100 fold. Actually in the case of liquid nitrogen the increase in volume is approximately 800 fold. Therefore we need to use appropriate/approved containers that to allow for this expansion to prevent an explosion due to increased pressure in the vessel. An accident occurred at Texas A&M when someone decided to “fix” the pressure relief and rupture disks of a refrigerator sized liquid nitrogen cylinder because the disks kept bursting. In other words they were working as they were meant to by allowing the gas to be released and thereby relieving the pressure of the cylinder. The relief and rupture disks were replaced with metal plugs. The gas continued to expand, this time with no where to go, and by the middle of the night the flask had exploded, shooting through the concrete ceiling destroying the lab above, and blowing out the windows and the doors. All involved were extremely fortunate that this occurred out of business hours when no one occupied either of the labs that were affected. The second consideration from the off-gassing is that as the gas is released into the atmosphere it has the ability to displace oxygen and therefore to cause asphyxiation. Because of this, cryogenic materials must be used only in well ventilated spaces. For instance their use or storage in an enclosed room, fridge or freezer could result in personnel collapsing from lack of oxygen. Oxygen sensors may be necessary for rooms where large volumes of cryogenics are used or stored. For example there are oxygen sensors located in the NMR centre in the New Science Complex. CLASS B – Flammable and Combustible  Flammable liquid – flash point <37.8°C  Combustible liquid– flash point >37.8°C <93.3°C  Includes:  Flammable gases  Flammable liquids  Combustible liquids  Flammable solids  Flammable aerosols  Reactive flammable materials (those that may ignite spontaneously upon contact with air or water or react with air or water to produce a flammable gas.)  This symbol of a flame represents flammable and combustible material. It means that the material will burn and is therefore a fire hazard.  Designation of the material as Class B is based on its flash point i.e. the temperature at which a substance will ignite upon exposure to air. Materials with flashpoints less that 37.8°C are considered flammable and those with flashpoints between 37.8 and 93.3 are considered combustible.  Class B consists of 6 different divisions including flammable gases, flammable liquids, combustible liquids, flammable solids, flammable aerosols, and reactive flammable materials  Flammable materials catch fire at lower temperatures than combustible materials or may burst it flame spontaneously in air. Examples of flammable and combustible materials are ethyl alcohol, benzene, turpentine and gasoline. CLASS C – Oxidizers  Can readily decompose to give oxygen or another oxidizing material. As such they may be able to cause a fire in the absence of air. As well they may:  Add to the intensity of a fire.  Cause materials to burn more readily.  React with flammable and combustible materials to cause a fire even without an ignition source  React with materials to release toxic gases.  Burn or irritate skin, eyes, and breathing passages. CLASS D1 - Immediate and Serious Effects  Includes chemicals that are very toxic with a single dose.  Exposure could be fatal or cause serious health effects such as burns, loss of consciousness or coma.  E.g.carbon monoxide, sodium cyanide, methanol, sulphuric acid CLASS D2 – Other Toxic Effects • Includes materials that are toxic, however their effects might be acute, but temporary or chronic. • Includes skin and eye irritants, reproductive toxins, carcinogens, teratogens, sensitizers and chronic toxins. Nanomaterials  Engineered materials with at least one dimension <100 nm  Carbon nanotubes  Fullerenes  Quantum dots, etc.  Unique properties compared to microscale including toxicity CLASS D- Biohazardous Infectious • Organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi along with the toxins produced by these organisms that cause disease in humans and/or animals. • Because these organisms can exist in human and animal tissue and fluids, these tissues and fluids are classified as biohazardous, whether or not a specific organism is known to be present. Laboratories: Objectives:  Identify classes of chemicals and their characteristics. Discuss various storage requirements and considerations. Identify applicable legislation  Identify general lab hazards and necessary equipment  Identify different types of fume hoods, understand how its fume hood operation and list factors that affect its containment. Identify applicable legislation.  Define hazardous waste. Discuss requirements of applicable legislation (characterization; movement documents; HWIN; treatment; land disposal restriction)  Decommissioning considerations for laboratories. ANSI standards What makes a lab?  For our purposes:  Laboratory – any space where scientific research, experimentation, or analysis is conducted  What would you expect to find in a lab? What are the hazards? What’s in the lab to protect you?  Risk = severity x frequency Engineering Controls  Fumehoods  Biosafety Cabinets  Guards  Safety interlocks Characteristics  Sash of shatterproof material  Materials of construction resistant to damage by materials to be used  Historically asbestos containing material common  Vertical vs. horizontal sashes  Services – power, water, gas Fume hoods – Common misuses of the average hood  Particulates  Pressurized systems  Explosions  Alterations/misuse of air foils  Biohazards  Highly hazardous materials  Pollution control  Waste disposal  Storage Air emissions  Regulated by MOE  Environmental Compliance Approvals  Formerly Certificates of Approval but process streamlined in October 2011  Emission summaries and dispersion modelling for discharges Fume hood systems  Auxiliary  Provides for unconditioned air to make up a significant portion of the exhausted air  Perchloric Acid  Dedicated ducts with few/no horizontal runs  Allow for continuous wash down of ducts to prevent accumulation of perchlorates  Variable Air Volume  Allows for varying quantity of air supplied/exhausted to a space  General concept is to provide a constant face velocity regardless of sash height by varying the volume of air exhausted  variations  Use of sophisticated systems of sensors and control  Decreased flow = decreased operating expenses  Glove box  Complete containment/isolation  Controlled environment, toxicity, reactivity with oxygen  Positive vs. negative pressure depending on application  Portable, self-contained unit  Not exhausted through ventilation system  Use of filters to clean the air before releasing back into the room  Advantages vs. disadvantages  Performance Monitoring  Face velocity measurement  Multiple reading across face of hood determine average  Visualization  Tracer gas containment (ASHRAE 110)  Manikin of average size in front of hood; exposure monitor in front of breathing zone  Tracer gas (ofte6 SF ) released at specified flow rates in hood and exposure measured  AM vs. AI vs. AU Sustainability & Health and Safety  Fume hoods use significant amounts of energy and are therefore targeted in sustainability initiatives.  How can this be done without compromising safety?  Major energy efficiency opportunities in laboratories - Implications for health and safety, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Volume 14, Issue 5, September-October 2007, Pages 31-39 Hazards – Assess  Look at  MSDSs;  Literature;  SOPs;  Training records;  Lab safety manual;  Instruction manuals  Etc. Administrative Controls  Location, location, location  Ensure appropriate  Storage for reagents, supplies  Locations for equipment  Allowance for waste streams  Separation of computer /data processing areas  Written Standard Procedures  Departmental, lab specific SOPs  Manufacturer’s instruction manual. Examples:  Equipment e.g. autoclaves, centrifuge  Acutely toxic materials e.g. HF, sodium cyanide  Hazardous procedures e.g. hydrogenation, acid digestions Dressing for the lab  Long pants  Socks  Closed toed, closed heeled, comfortable shoes that cover the foot  Secure  Long hair  Jewellery  Loose clothing, neck ties LECTURE 13 – Hazardous Waste ▪ Reduce, reuse, recycle ▪ Inventory control and management is vital. It is very tempting to accept donations of chemicals from others or with the best of intentions try to save money by buying in bulk, but disposal costs are significant. ▪ Purchase Price + Management Cost + Disposal Cost = Lifecycle Cost (Cradle to the Grave) ▪ Proper storage: Good housekeeping practices – bottles on floor can
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