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ENVS 2210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: European Dark Bee, Beekeeping, Honey Flow

Environmental Sciences
Course Code
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman
Study Guide

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Beekeeping Notes
Unit 1: Pages 9-17, 21-28
The honey bee is an insect ally.
Beekeeping is the care and maintenance of bee colonies for fun and profit.
What is beekeeping?
- At the basic level is it simply providing honey bees a convenient domicile,
hive, that allows them to rear brood and store honey.
- Learning and using bee biology to efficiently manage colonies and
promote the bees natural instincts. This also allows them to predict
colony development and needs
- Colony population management. Bee population size is predictable and
the beekeeper will support growth to take advantage of resrouces offered
by the environment. Bee populations peak at the time of nectar flow.
As colonies reach their peak population they store extra food. After the
nectar flow bee populations decline before the next season
Nectar flow max population
Brood population during the lowest point, may be zero
Drone population zero during the lowest point then rapid growth
Bee have been used as weapons in the past. They can be used to detect land
mines, nuclear and chemical weapons.
Some bees can produce a toxic honey that can and has been used as a
History of Bees
No one knows the first time bees were colonized but evidence goes back to
the Egyptians. They used elongated clay cylinder hives and used smoke to
move the bees so they could harvest the honey.
The middle east beekeepers made hives of pottery.
The seasonal cycle of bees is more predictable in temperate climates than
tropical climates. In shorter winter days the bees must huddle together to
survive but this does not happen in tropical climates.
Beekeeping management activites are similar wherever bees are kept and
vary only in timing and intensity.
Bees and honey practices have been mentioned the bible and Qur’an as well
as in greek and roman civilations.
Bee Gums and Skeps
Bees were often found in trees in forested areas and one tree might house
several colonies. Beekeepers eventually leanred to construct tree hollows for
their bees called gums.
In areas of fewer trees, upside down wicker baskets called skeps were used
to house colonies.
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These structures were vertical and the bees stored brood (beesmax where
the queen lays eggs) in the upper portion and the honey in the lower portion.
Beekeepers often added an extra hollow gum or skep so one could be used
for brood and one for honey making the production bigger called supering.
Bees on the Move
Bees were not native of the Americas but were brought over from Europe.
A New Hive
Bee Space was invented in the 1800s by Langstroth (the father of modern
beekeeping) which was a protable hive so people could be beekeepers rather
than control a natural hive and rob their honey.
The smoker was developed which allows for better manipulation and
harvest of honey without harm to bees.
The queen excluder is a device ensuring separation of brood and honey
regions for increased ease of harvest.
Extractor, a device that removes honey from combs without destroying
Pages: 21-28
The Classification System
The honey is called Apis mellifera L.
All divisions of the classification system we use except that of species are
made primarily based on anatomical features (morphology).
Phylum Arthropoda
The honey bee along with all insects is classified in the Phylum Arthropoda
(jointed-footed animals).
All arthropods have: a segmented body of 2 or 3 regions, paired segmented
appendages and an exoskeleton. All are bilaterally symmetrical with a
tubular digestive tract. Open circulatory system with a heart that circulated
blood freely in the body. Invertebrates
Class Insecta
Consists of
- 3 body regions (head, thorax, abdomen)
- 1 pair of antennae
- normally 3 pairs of legs
- usually 1 or 2 pairs of legs
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Order Hymenoptera
insects with 4 membranous wings
Divided in to 2 subgroups (Symphyta and Apocrita (bees))
- Apocrita consists of: constricted abdomen, wings are membrane-like,
larvae that do not resemble ceterpillars and generally do not damage
plants by directly feeding on them.
- The Apocrita is further subdivided into 2 groups:
Parasictia (parasytic insects) and Aculeates (females having the
ovipositor modified into a sting; bees)
Family Apidae
Long tongued bees.
3 Subtypes:
- Apinae (stingless bees, orchid bees, bumble bees and honey bees)
- Nomadinae (cuckoo parasitic bees)
- Xylocopinae (carpenter bees)
Genus Apis
- Mellifera common western honey bee
Courselink Notes
1. Honey bees are excellent biological study subjects
They are studied for what they can teach us about ourselves Humans
compare bees with humankind: busy as a bee lazy like a drone
Characterisitcs of human interest aggressive behavior, hormone
regulation, alcoholism
Architecture Masters combs built with perfect hexagonal cells to
withstand heavy loads and rear bees
Dance language bees can tell sister workers where food sources are
Pheromone communication for reporoductive, cohesion and foraging
Evolution Studies
They are convenient easy to keep bee colonies and have study subjects
available when needed
Interesting intrigued philosophers, writers and artists, photographers.
2. Honey bees are beneficial and productive insects
Honey: Food and medicine. Rich in carbs, vitamins and antibacterial
Crop Pollination Growers have become more reliant on honey bees
to pollinate their crops.
Other Hive Products Beeswax, pollen, propolis, bee venom
Soucre of Entertainment Hobby beekeepers, movies, documentaries
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