Early Middle Review
Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills
Memory-Operates using brain structures and storing strategies
Storage strategy-Technique or activities that improve remembering. Begins in pre-school by
touching objects and being told to remember.
Rehersal-7-8yrs of age repeat information that must be remembered. Powerful but basic.
Organization-8yrs+ group material to be remembered so related information is put together
Elaboration-Create a relationship between items to remember them. Create acronyms, phrases,
visuals or verbal messages to remember.
Chunking-Organize related items into 1 meaningful group. Improves working memory and the
better it is chunked the easier it is to remember.
Meta-Memory-Informal understanding of memory where we question and evaluate or memory
storing techniques. 2 elements are; diagnosing memory problems monitor effectiveness of
Recognition-When something is similar, familiar or experienced it is easier to recall. Stimulus
must be present. It is an easy memory technique.
Recall-Remember something that is no longer there, more difficult. 2-4yr olds cannot recall
much, gets better as you age and with language.
Reconstruction- Recreate by selecting and interpreting information. Often condense, integrate
and add information. E.g. how a story changes from person to person.
Fuzzy Trace Theory-Experience can be stored exactly (verbatim) or take the basic meaning
(gist). Children are often verbatim but at age 11 and above we usually use the gist method.
Autobiographical Memory-Memory of significant experiences of our lives, allows us to relate
to others begins at age 2. Parents facilitate through conversation, using details about events and
open ended questions. The more emotional a memory the more likely to be remembered.
Eyewitness testimony- Children are often manipulated
Repeated questioning-Confuses children especially if the person is an authority figure. On
average children are questioned 11 times.
Leading Questions-Imply something happened that isnt necessarily true. E.g. When did Johnny
break the window? Instead of when was the window broken?
Peers Influence-Talk about events with absent peers. Absent peers often describe events as if
they were really there instead of just being told about the event.
Source Monitoring-Children often get confused over who said and did what. This can be a
problem especially with leading questions.
Encoding-Problem solving technique where information is transformed from a problem to a
mental state. Children have trouble with this because they miss parts of the information. Gets
better with age.
Fail to plan ahead-Problems require planning and children have trouble developing effective
plans because they dont think they need one, its hard to do and they expect parents to do it for
them. However, children will plan when asked to if it is not too complex.
Heuristics-They are general rules of thumb; they do not guarantee success but are useful.
Means end analysis-Determine difference between current and desired situation and then do
something to reduce the difference.
Strategies-Learn new things as we go so that as we age we use the easiest and most effective
ones to solve the problem
Collaboration-Beneficial when a partner is more skilled Intelligence
Spearmans G-Found that items on standardized tests are related. G is the general intelligence
that underlines all abilities.
Cattell- Believed in two broad factors that were intelligence.
Fluid Intelligence-Basic information processing skills. Computer analogy. Influenced by brain.
Crystallized Intelligence-Skills dependent on knowledge we have accumulated. Shaped by our
environment and culture.
Carroll-3stratum theory. Basically there are broad factors made up of narrower factors and these
factors are made up of specific skills. The criticism is that it ignores other theories.
Gardner-Theory of multiple intelligences. Proposed we have 9 different intelligences associated
with parts of our brain. Our abilities are different and distinct in each area.
Linguistic-The meaning of words, use words, understand ideas, use language to convey ideas.
Spatial-Perceive objects accurately, imagine appearance of object before and after it is made.
Logical/Mathematical-Understand relationships among objects, actions, ideas and mathematical
Musical-Understand and producing sounds that vary in pitch, rhythm and tone.
Body/Kinesthetic- Use ones body in different ways.
Naturalistic-Recognize and distinguish between members of different species/groups and
describes the relationship.
Interpersonal-Identify feelings, moods, motivations and intentions in others.
Intrapersonal-Understand your own emotions, strengths and weaknesses etc.
Existential-Considers ultimate issues such as the purpose of life and the nature of death etc.
Emotional Intelligence-Ability to use your own and others emotions effectively for solving
problems and living happily. Often perceive emotions well and know own and others emotions.
People high in EI often have high self esteem, more sociable and have high IQ scores.
Sternbergs Successful Intelligence-Intelligence is using your abilities skillfully to achieve
personal goals. There are 3 types
Analytic Ability-Analyzing problems and generating different solutions. Multiple solutions.
Creative Ability-Dealing adaptively with a new situation and problem.
Practical Ability-Knowing what solution is going to work. Common sense.
IQ Tests-Administered from age 2 onwards and includes many cognitive and motor tests. Range
from easy to difficult and include verbal reasoning, abstract visual reasoning etc. Administered
individually (no group testing) and must ensure child is calm to write the test accurately. Score is
based in relation to others in your age group.
Weischler Intelligence Scale- Includes other aspects of intelligence besides verbal like practical
performance. Get scores on verbal IQ and performance IQ and your scores is based on a
combination of the two scores. Administered individually.
Normal Distribution-Mean is 100. Most people are 15 points away from the mean. 95% are
within 30 points from the mean and 99% are within 45 points of the mean.
Do they work?-They predict IQ scores later in life and generally get a higher IQ as you age
especially if parents foster intelligence. Higher IQ scores are also correlated with high marks in
school, successful employment and better psychological adjustment e.g. liked and self esteem.
Nature-The closer people are related their IQs are more highly correlated. Identical twins have
similar intelligence even if reared apart. Adopted childrens IQs are correlated with biological
parent not adoptive parent. Nurture-More stimulation contributes to increased IQs. Adoption studies show that children
from disadvantaged homes adopted into high SES homes they will have higher IQs than their
biological mother. Change is due to enriched environment.
Flynn Effect-IQs have steadily increased from one generation to the next.
SES and culture-Children who are from economically disadvantages homes have lower IQ than
those in economically advantaged homes. European/Asian are advantaged; African/Hispanic not.
Stereotype Threat-Knowledge of a stereotype leads to anxiety which reduced performances
which reinforces stereotypes. Less likely to do well even if they know they can.
Questions culture specific-Items reflect cultural heritage and environment and not everyone has
the same experience.
EQAO-Tests the effectiveness of Ontarios education system. They administer and publish
results of standardized tests. It tells us students achievement compared to others in that age group
in the province.
Volantes criticisms-Takes away from applied learning and thinking skills with a focus on basic
skills and declarative knowledge. Teachers spend too much time teaching them the test where
they move away from the curriculum and focus solely on the test.
Giftedness-Traditional definition is individuals with IQ scores of 130 or greater.
-Modern definition now includes exceptional talent as well.
-Some research suggests gifted children are more mature and have fewer emotional problems
which can cause issues because if you spend more time with older people you may become
sophisticated but wont fit in.
Prerequisites-Child loves the subject and expresses desire to master it. Instruction to develop
talent begins at an early age with inspiring teacher and parents are committed to promotion of
childs talent but are not pushy.
Intellectual Disability-Disability that significantly affects ones ability to learn and use
information. Present during childhood and continues throughout life. Individuals are capable of
participating effectively, adapting to changes in tasks and routines and communicating and
engaging socially. No longer about IQs and support is geared to the individual.
Learning Disabilities-Criteria; difficulty mastering an academic subject, normal intelligence,
not suffering from other conditions that could explain performance. Reading is the most common
Causes-Heredity because children with learning disabilities have parents or relatives with similar
issues. Injuries because head injuries, nutritional deprivation and toxic substances can cause
learning disabilities too.
Phonological Development-Ability to attend to sound sequences; produce sounds, combine
them to understand words and phrases. Development completed by age 5.
Phonological strategies-Simplify the pronunciation of adult words such as deleting unstressed
words e.g. nana for banana. Replace hissing sounds with step consonant sounds e.g. see becomes
tea and say becomes tay.
Semantic Development-Study of words and their meaning. Children say their first words at 1yr
and incorporate words rapidly. At age 6 the vocab is approx 10,000 words; 5 new words a day. Fast Mapping-Rapid connection of new words to meanings, cannot