38 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3400
Tuuli Kukkonen

Interviewing Is The Basic Process For Gathering Data, Providing Information And Advice To Clients, And Suggesting Workable Alternatives For Resolving Concerns. • interviewing Can Be Found In Many Settings. Examples Employment Offices Schools Hospitals Law Firms Community Agencies And Government Offices. Counseling Is More Intensive And Personal Than Interviewing • Counseling Helps People With Normal Issues Or Opportunities • Counseling Is Most Often Associated With Social Work, Schools, Pastoral Work, Psychology, Mental Health, Psychiatry Psychotherapy - More Intensive Counseling. Most often associated with social work psychology mental health and psychiatry • Focuses On Deep-Seated Personality Or Behavioral Difficulties • Intentional Interviewing Skills Are Equally Important For Effective Psychotherapy science provides a basic empirical support such as evidenced-based practice CBT DFT and neuroscience. It is not enough because each client is unique and you are the artists who facilitates change and development. What is natural for you with integrated skills and theories in yourself and be flexible what promotes client change? 1. Extra therapeutic factors- such as clients and their environment 2. therapeutic alliance- the client and the counselor 3. therapeutic technique- the doings of therapy 4. expectancy, hope, placebo- possibilities intentionality- acting with a sense of capability choosing from among a range of alternative actions thoughts and behaviors in responding to changing life situations. If a helping skill does not work try something different self-actualization- major objective of counseling and psychotherapy is enabling clients to find her own direction and enhance their potential self-actualization requires resilience and the ability to rebound from the eventual stressors and challenges we all face respectful model R - religion/spirituality e- economic class background S- sexual orientation and/or gender identity P- personal style and education E - ethnic racial identity C- chronological/lifespan challenges T trauma F- family background U- meet physical characteristics L- location of residence and language differences cultural intentionality- assessing client cultural background flexibly choosing and using skills to achieve specific results recognizing the result may vary with clients from different cultures. Basic counseling session structure learning micro-skills approach 1. defined skill, features and purpose 2. observe the skill 3. learn the skill and its implications 4. practice skill and role-play 5. plan for generalization ethics- standards and regulations of practice why codes of ethics: • assist decision-making • protect clients from incompetent practice • provide guidance for interactions with colleagues, and employees • how are ethics of claim personal relationships? The counselor is inherently a powerful position competence • work within your limits • pursue training and development • be aware personal responses and possible unresolved issues • referrer when necessary confidentiality- helps build trust • what remains private? Nearly everything. Such exemptions are training situations or legal situations such as child abuse or neglect, serious harm to self, specified harm to a specified other, file subpoenaed or disclose sexual abuse of a regulated health professional Informed consent • consists of: o purpose (why) and nature (why) o confidentiality and its limitations o risks/side effects o alternatives o possible consequences of non-action o voluntary can stop at any time o written versus verbal o ongoing o students/training/recording devices dual relationships • occur when you have more than one relationship with the client. Examples are friendship family member business partner or sexual partner. • reduce counselor objectivity • client placement position of diminished consent • it can be harmful to the client multicultural competence • central to the ethical provision of service • we interact professionally with people from many cultural backgrounds • responsibility to: ongoing learning to minimize the need for a referral and ongoing development of cultural competence to study and supervision use of multicultural guidelines require: • awareness- be aware of your own assumptions, values, some biases • skills- develop appropriate strategies and techniques • knowledge- understand the worldview of culturally different clients • ASK self-awareness: assumptions, values, and biases • Privilege- power given to people from the dominant culture through cultural assumptions and stereotypes. Invisibility of whiteness. From privilege comes stereotyping of less dominant groups reinforcing the privileged status. Discrimination, oppression. The counselor is an inherently powerful position Positive psychology- scientific study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. • Traditionally psychology has focused on deficits, dysfunction, lack. • Shift in thinking to well-being • It is a multidimensional approach that encompasses both feelings of happiness and meaningfulness. • Wellness- helps clients discover and rediscover their strengths. You help the client find strengths, positive assets, resources, and virtues in them and their support system. • Anticipated result- clients can face difficulties and discuss problem resolution from a positive foundation. Optimism- • Hope • Confidence • Cheerfulness • Trust in things to work out and get better • Sense of personal power • Belief in the future Optimism is a key dimension of: • Resilience- ability to recover and learn from difficulties • Stress management • Coping with negative emotions • Facing issues and challenges • Health Wellness- indivisible self model Essential Self- spiritual, gender identity, cultural identity, self-care. Social self- love, friendship Coping Self- Leisure, stress management, self-worth, realistic beliefs Creative self- Thinking, emotions, control, work, humour Physical self- Nutrition, exercise and sleep. Consider the context: Local- family, neighbourhood, community Institutional- education, government, religion, business and industry Global- politics, culture, media, and environment Lifespan- perpetual. Positive and purposeful. Triune Brian model The three evolutionary parts: Reptilian- basic body functions, pleasure and pain, and fight, flight or freeze Limbic- emotion and memory Cortex- higher cognitive functioning (CEO) Attending behaviour • First and most critical skill of listening • The connective force of conversations and empathetic understanding • Supporting your client with individually and culturally appropriate verbal following, visuals, vocal quality and body language. • Impact: We know when someone is attending or not, we are touched when it is present. • Sometimes listening carefully is enough to produce change. Aspects of attending behaviour: • Visual o Look at client o Notice eye contact o Notice cultural differences o Be aware, don’t stare o What are your eyes saying? o What do they see? o Are eyes the window to the soul? • Vocal o Tone o Pitch o Volume o Hesitations o Verbal underlining o Rate of speech o Clearing of throat • Body language o Comfortable o Relaxed o Attentive o Location o Distance o What is your body saying? o Cultural differences? • Verbal o Track the conversation o Stay with the story o Selective attention o Silence o Redirect attention o Clarification o Check your perceptions o Paraphrase o Summarize Empathy • Carl rogers brought it to forefront • Act “as of” • Enter client’s world • Communicate understanding of the client’s world as they see and experience it 1. Subtractive- counselor gives back less or distorts the client’s words 2. Basic- counselor responses are interchangeable with client’s 3. Additive- counselor responses add to or link to client’s words. Sympathy • Counselor has same emotional response • We use our emotional frame as a point of reference • It discloses our emotions as counselors Empathy • Act “as if” we have the same response • Use client’s frame of reference • Seeks to understand client emotions Therapeutic use of empathy • You display it early in therapeutic relationship • If you relate empathically to client they are more likely to respond to you • Do not assume you know the client’s emotions as well as they do • Empathy requires openness and flexibility • Be aware complete silence following client emotional expression may diminish connection Dimensions of experience Person-centered therapy • Humanistic o People are strong and capable o Self-actualizing tendency o Given the right circumstances, people have the ability to handle difficulties and realize their potential. Fully functioning person is: • Open to experience and lives with a sense of meaning and purpose. - Negative emotions are the result of unmet needs Therapeutic stance for person centered therapy: core conditions - Empathy- do I enter the inner world of this person? - Genuine- am I authentic? - Congruency- I am (real self ) vs. I should (ideal self) of verbal and nonverbal communication - Immediacy- am I in the moment? - Acceptance- do I care for and ‘prize’ this person? - Unconditional positive regard- Do I move beyond judgement to deep respect and caring? Approach to person centered therapy - Therapist is the main therapeutic tool - Active listening - Reflective feelings - Asking for clarification - There is no: questioning or proving for information, testing, or interpretation Intended effect on client - Goal: provide a safe environment to explore feelings more deeply and discover new things about themselves. - Effect o Greater trust in self o Improved self-acceptance- ‘prize’ themselves o Move toward openness o Relate more directly with others… more ‘real’ o Increased spontaneity and aliveness o Evaluate self from within, rather than from those outside self. Observation skills - Observation is the act of watching and listening carefully with the purpose of understanding behaviour as it is happening - Mastering this skill takes time and practice - Helps to get to know clients and what is conveyed by their verbal and nonverbal behaviour - Facilitates establishing a working relationship Observations: verbal - Client key words: o Repeated words or phrases o Verbal underlining with vocal emphasis o Topic repetition or changes o Positive/negative framing of topic - Patterns of selective attention- your style and theory - “I” statements and “other” statements - Abstract and concrete conversation Observations: nonverbal - Facial expression, flushing, eye gaze and movement, eye brows, tone of voice, timing and intensity of response. - Jiggling legs. Body shifts, general body movements - Fundamental to emotional response Observations: discrepancies - Of related to an issue--- an easy way in - Stress often arises from the internal/external conflict - Common discrepancies exist between: o Goals and values o What clients say and what they do o What clients say and their body language/tone of voice o What they say and their emotional expression o You and the client!  Age, gender, ethnicity, education Observation skills - Observation skills are a critical tool in determining how the client interprets the world - Clients tell us about their world by nonverbal and verbal means - A self-aware counsellor is constantly aware of the client in the here-and-now interaction. Reflecting content Key skills of active listening - Attending behaviour o Foundation of listening o Empathy o Visual o Verbal o Vocal o Body language - Encouraging o Short responses that help clients keep talking o Verbally: repeating key words and or short statements o Nonverbally: head nods, smiling o Head nods and positive facial expressions- excessive use can be annoying and frustrating o Open gestures o Umm or uh huh o Repeat key words from last statement  Choices lead the client in a variety of directions  Avoid over-directing the client  Parroting can also be annoying if overused o Silence with appropriate nonverbal behaviour o Too few encouragers may make the interviewer appear cold and uninterested Paraphrasing o Reflection of actual content o Shorten and clarify the essence of what was just said o Use the client’s actual words o Use a questioning and curious tone of voice 1. Chose a sentence stem (put a different way, you seem to be saying, as I understand it, is this right?, in other words…, it seems as if…., as I hear it…) 2. Include the client’s key words and or main ideas 3. Restate the essence of the client talk: - be brief and meaningful and don’t repeat the ideas exactly. 4. Check for accuracy: ask a brief question at the end, ask for feedback on accuracy and usefulness Summarizing o Clarify content with feedback by integrating client thoughts, emotions, and behaviours o Similar to paraphrase but used over a longer time span o Useful at the start, midpoint or end of a session o Intended to: - confirm understanding by checking your assumptions, organize complex ideas and content, and separate relevant from irrelevant content by focusing on certain themes. Questioning - Effective use can open door to knowledge and understanding - Open new areas for exploration - Pinpoint and clarify issues - Aid self-exploration - Skill to know what to ask and when - Can take the client away from self direction - Can give the counsellor too much power Open questions o Can’t be answered in a few words o Encourages deeper exploration o Increases information obtained May begin with: Anticipated result Who Talk more What More detail When Begin a session Where Pinpoint information Why Clarify info How Identify specifics Could, would, can (gives more power to Assist assessments the client as option to respond is implied) The first word may determine client response: What- leads to facts How- leads to exploring process or emotion why- leads to reasons could, would or can- are considered maximally open leading to framing or summarizing Closed questions o Usually answered in a few words o May provide useful info o Counsellor carries responsibility for the conversation. May begin with Anticipated result Do Provide specific details Is Focus talk Are May close off client talk, increase counsellor control. Effective questions: encourage focused conversations, pertinent detail and less wandering. `What else?” -Sometimes the only way to get at missing data is by asking questions Examples: “what else is going on in your life?” o “looking back at what we’ve been talking about, what else might be added?” o “could you tell me a bit about what else occurs to you at this moment?” o “anything else… have we missed anything?” Questions to identify strengths o Personal strength inventory  Could you tell me about a success you have had in the past  Explore strengths/skills associated with a favourite sport/leisure activity/job o Cultural /gender/family strength inventory  What cultural practices have helped you adapt to living in canada?  How has being a wo/man influence your decision to become a counselor? o Positive exceptions to the concern o When is the problem absent or a little less difficult? o Would you tell me the quality you wish people associated with you and how is it important to you? Cultural sensitivity - Honor cultural differences - Some cultures consider questioning rude - Questions from culturally different interviewers may be considered particularly rude - Too many questions too quickly may promote distrust - Questions used insensitively can destroy trust Potential problems - Bombardment/grilling- too many questions may put clients on the defensive, and may give too much control to the interviewer - Multiple questions- may confuse clients by asking too many questions at once. - Questions as statements- interviewers may inadvertently use questions to sell their own opinion. Potential problems- why? - Clients often do not know why - Is knowing the reason why really important - Possibilities beyond why o “could we explore the background of what happened just before you did that?” o People say you talk too fast. Let’s explore what’s going on around those situations. Is that ok? o How does your body feel when you get anxious - All these explore reasons behind their behaviour without producing client defensiveness - Solution-focused therapy  Developed in 1980s  Dissatisfaction with problem  approach  Focus on what not working  Diagnostic (medical model)  Solution approach  Focus on solution behaviour  Present and future orientation  Look for exceptions  Brief therapy Assumptions  People are unique with inherent strengths, resources, and past success  People are basically good, can think rationally and make choices  Nothing is all bad  You cannot change people, people can only change themselves  Change is constant  Small changes lead to bigger changes The therapeutic stance: “not knowing”  Client is the expert in their own life  Therapist sets aside their frame of reference  Therapist does not know, until disclosed, the significance of the client’s experience  Rely on client perceptions and explanations  “Curiosity”  Requires commitment and practice Approach: questions are central  Core question types:  Miracle question- Imagining how things would be different if the problem was resolved  Ask deliberately and dramatically  ‘If you woke up tomorrow morning and the problem was gone, how  would you know?’  Then explore more deeply through:  ‘What would you be doing differently?’  ‘How would your day unfold?’  ‘Who would most likely notice the change in you?’  ‘What else?’  Scaling questions- Scaling questions invite clients to employ measuring and tracking of their own experience, in a non-threatening way. Scaling and measuring are useful tools to identify differences for clients. Goals and progress towards goals are often facilitated by subjective measuring and scaling  Exception questions- Times when the client is or was free of the problem  ‘Are there times when the problem is not there?’  ‘What’s different about the time when the problem doesn’t occur?’  ‘How did you manage to get the positive result?’  ‘What are your strengths?’  ‘What resources do you have?’  ‘What else?’ Common first questions:  What do you want to happen today?’  ‘What will be a sign that our conversation has been helpful?’  ‘How do you cope with the situation?’  ‘What has helped in the past?’  ‘What else?’ Comparison Person-centered Solution-focused  Positive about client capabilities  Positive about client capabilities  Client as expert  Client as expert  Client leads while therapist attends  Therapist leads with questions  Dysfunction arises from unmet needs  Focus on solutions not problems  Authenticity & empathy of therapist  Well formed goals and exceptions facilitates change facilitate change Stages in solution building 1. Start the session/Describe the problem 1. How can I be helpful to you today? 2. What do you hope will be different at the end of today? 3. What was better this past week? 4. Which of those ideas is important to work on first? 2. Develop Goals 1. What will be different if the problem is solved? 2. Small and concrete changes needed 3. SMART goals  Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time­bound 3. Explore for exceptions  Is there a time when this is not a problem?  How did that happen?  What was different? 4. End of session Feedback  Summarize session…compliment/highlight what is working and suggestions for further observation and change 5. Evaluate client progress  Scaling questions to highlight change Neuroscience - Brain is complex, holistic and interconnected - There is a body-mind/brain connection - Implications for counselling/psychotherapy o Stress: impact on learning/performance/mental health o Wellness, positive psychology ability to cope, resilience - The brain and the mind are an integrated system o Therefore, changes in the brain lead to changes in the mind and changes in the mind lead to changes in the brain o Our ancestors- more important to not get hit by sticks than to eat carrots  Meaning fearful experiences were more powerful than pleasant ones  Brain has a negativity bias that tends to overlook good and highlight bad resulting in pessimism and anxiety. HPA axis • Hypothalamus, pituitary, & adrenal glands • Limbic system: Emotional center TAP axis • Thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex • Cortex: Executive functioning • Helps regulate emotion . We cannot separate our thoughts from our emotions HPA and TAP are always in communication . . Counselling encourages TAP emotional regulation and helps reduce power of negative feelings Epigenetics: “epi” Greek for over/above + genetics- “While we inherit a template of genetic material (genotype), what get expressed (phenotype) is guided by noncoded genetic information that is experience dependent.” -Experience is a biochemical intervention.” • Therefore, EXPERIENCE MATTERS! Explicit memory- conscious - Implicit memory o Unconscious o Where the past experience lies o Tend toward negativity Reflecting feelings - Emotion- is evolutionary and is constantly expressed. - Universal emotions- mad, sad, glad, fear, surprise, disgust and contempt. - Emotions, feelings, mood and affect are often layered like an onion. Emotion in the counseling room Basic to effective counselling and all relationships - Research: Emotion + talk = change - Expression of emotion varies with culture - Social conversation often ignores emotions unless prominent - Want to create space for emotion - Bring clients ”back to their senses” and body SELF AWARENESS - Do you feel a wide variety of emotions? - Can you accurately label/name your emotions? - Are you aware of your emotional triggers? - Are you comfortable with emotional expression: o Yours? o Others? - Are you comfortable talking openly and easily about emotions: o Yours? o Others? REFLECTING FEELINGS - Shifts focus away from problem solving - Slows pace of therapy - ‘Here and now’ experience - Intended to help others sense and experience the most basic part of themselves - Clarify how they really feel about: o Themselves o their experiences o about others 1. Observe the feeling (explicit, implicit, nonverbal or mixed) 2. Name the feeling 3. Repeat to the client Reflecting feeling basics - Start with your observation and attending skills - Be tentative - Reflect intensity
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 3400

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.