Lecture Oct 26 th
Skip chapter 10. Read chapter 11 instead.
A good thing: have to have a certain amount of forgetting.
Trace Decay- been too long since you saw you’re first movie for example. Time!
Proactive vs. Retroactive Inhibition- retroactive inhibition - likely explanation for forgetting (too
much similar stuff going on in our minds) previous learned material interferes with taking in new
info - proactive inhibition; likely accounts for why we forget!!
Freud- so horrible you don’t want to remember- motivational account for forgetting. You’d
remember everything if it wasn’t for motivation i.e. sexual abuse: people forget because it was
*short term memory forgetting is linked to trace decay
*long term memory forgetting is linked too interference from other stuff
Key to a Good Memory: multiple indexing- find a couple of separate tags to associate with this
piece of information-gives you several cues when you are trying to retrieve it.
Why are childhood memories so fuzzy? - Not trace decay. The problem is with the original
encoding - kid is a shitty file clerk.
Lashley- Search for the “Engram”- believed memories were 8x10 pictures filed in our memories-
wrong- countless animal testing on removing engram’s so they forget something proved her to be
Lecture Oct 31 st
covered this but somehow it’s gone -.-
Drives (internal) vs. Incentives (external)
Primary (Biological/Homeostatic) vs. Secondary (Social) vs. “Intrinsic” (i.e. Curiosity /
Affiliation) – aberham maslow- chapter 11
Proximal vs. Distal Motivational Accounts
-proximal approach would look at features in the immediate environment for its meaning
i.e. rape- this approach would say she wore a tight skirt or short dress- these are features of the
-distal approach would look at a larger environment to figure out something’s meaning; this
often looks at genetics and evolution
Motivation must be INFERRED from behavior
-eating does not always imply hunger, drinking does not always imply thirst, sexual behavior
does not always require the desire to have sex or even to reproduce
-be assertive when being motivated Traits vs. States- Both are relevant
Traits- examples- she’s smart, he’s funny, she’s mean- qualities someone has – they are aspects
of who you are – characteristics for the most part (they don’t change)
States- transient things (they change) – tired is a state, it changes – stomach ache, headache. It is
human universal – don’t think you can find a culture where this is reversed
-When you try to account for your own behavior you tend to overlook the importance of state
i.e. took an exam and failed- you say “oh I was tired”
-When we account for the behavior of others we tend or overestimate the importance of traits
i.e. he failed an exam- we say “oh he’s dumb”
Lecture Nov 7 .
Chapter 11- motivation
Jukebox Theory of Motivation
*good example of motivation*
activation- putting money into the jukebox to play song you want to hear
arousal vs. direction- must give the jukebox direction for it to play what you want to hear
-all arousal appears the same in humans, but environmental cues (incentives) give a way to
express arousal which differs humans
Yerkes- Dodson Law: Relates Arousal and Performance
-performance increases with arousal to a point, but then it hits an optimal level and starts to
-too much studying can cause someone to do poorly on an exam because they past the optimal
-male sexual response can be explained by Dodson law, as arousal increases the performance
does not get better
Incentives: External Events that attract or repel us- leads us to
The Conflict Model:
Approach/ Approach; in a sense it’s a nice problem to have- i.e. two dates for one night, who do
I go out with?
Approach/Avoidance; one thing that has two aspects, i.e. kid in front of cookie jar, if he eats the
cookie he will get hit.
Avoidance/Avoidance- leads to displacement activity; i.e. you go home and want to play with
friends but your mother tells you to go visit your grandma, don’t visit your friends versus having
to listen to your mother, you’re stuck in a conflict, doing something totally different, [like
cleaning the bathroom instead of hanging with your friends or visiting your grandma], is called
Unconscious motivation – Not all Freudian
*important*- this is where Freud fits in
-everybody uses unconscious motivation all the time Freudian view of the unconscious motivation:
-human motivation is asexual- unconscious
-ice burg view of motivation: the tip of the ice burg fails to reveal the stuff under the surface,
Freud said- what’s below the surface is your Libido (sexual energy), the ID (constantly asking
for pleasure) and sex. You can account for any human’s behavior from this point of view,
according to Freud, i.e. we why forget, there are no accidents, etc.
Modern view of the unconscious
-you don’t need your conscious verbal thinking mind to get from moment to moment, much of
your motivation and processing is handled unconsciously.
-most things do not need conscious verbal thought to get done, don’t need it in order to activate
our body and achieve our goals – very exaggerated in everyday psychology
-thought is expensive therefore, our bodies have evolved to do most things without it
-when we realize why we’ve done something i.e. why we saw the movie we saw, we mistake that
for why we actually, initially did it- this makes us feel better.
Lecture Nov. 9 th
In the middle of chapter 11…
SEX not GENDER.
Sex differences - we are descended from “winners” vs. Cultural Differences – our sex is not
developed by society, cultural differences in sexual matters are nothing compared to the hard
wired differences in our heads.
Sex differences vs. Gender differences – sex differences are better; some say gender differences
are “socially constructed” which is why sex differences is a better term because our genders are
NOT socially constructed.
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
(The Selfish Gene- Richard Dawkins) – Book; talks about cultural differences.
Forces that compel us to sex are invariant; they are the same in every culture.
Who am I? - Canadian (not that important to who you are), Christian (doesn’t provide most
important information, doesn’t come close to understanding who you are)
*most revealing important thing you can say about who you are, is your sex; (not your gender).
Sex differences in reproductive strategies apply across species
Cultural differences are minimal
Constancy in sexual motivation (generalities):
Men- want to mate with everyone in sight and often do; the only thing that stops men from
mating is women, women simply say “no”. Most men will be like this if they can get away with
it, i.e. movie stairs, rock stars are like this because they can get away with it. Men also look for
younger partners with bizarre qualities like ideal waste to hip ratios (you don’t learn this in your
culture, it is ideal for the whole world- human condition). Both genders are drawn to signals of reproductive fitness; they find them attractive whether or not they want to become a parent.
Women- in general (all over the world), want to find a mate who will provide stability, safety and
resources, much of this if focused on child bearing. How attractive someone is to a woman
depends on their menstrual system; when a woman is ovulating they tend to be more attracted to
people they wouldn’t normally be.
Unspoken sexual preferences: (waste to hip ratio), facial symmetry, sexual pheromones
(chemicals that we don’t know we’re responding too, this is what draws us to the things we can’t
Males lack reproductive confidence- difficult for a man to know “if that’s his baby”.
This results in jealously and infanticide – (when a man doesn’t accept a child that is not his, very
common in every culture) when a guy hooks up with a woman who has a baby from a previous
relationship, that baby is at risk… considerately greater risk.
Lecture Nov 14 th
Finishing chapter 11- motivation
Starting chapter 3.
-Sexual motivation is biological (not cultural) – just like every other species.
-Jealousy also differs for males and females. Females are concerned about love, spiritual
connections and emotion while males worry about physical contact.
-Evolution says males are concerned about reproduction and females are concerned about their
male’s resources being given to another female and their babies.
-Biological issues that could have social implications – males are able to reproduce 20 minutes
after they reproduce… women once pregnant are committed.
Consider the Kiwi… large bird, known as the kiwi – sex difference, not gender difference.
Every time a male kiwi ejaculates he produces enough sperm to impregnate every kiwi on the
planet, female kiwi gets 1 egg – this makes choosing a partner very critical, very choosy.
Females are the choosy sex – big differences between male and female sex for every species.
Why? Culture or biology? Bio!
Females invest more in reproductive business, therefore females are more choosy- this is
biology, not gender or culture.
Guys compete for women because there are fewer women because women are pregnant;
therefore, we get to choose.
Starting chapter 3 – A functional map of the brain
Sensory, Motor and Association Cortex
More primitive brain: hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
Cortex: (a) % of brain area?
(b) Smooth vs. fissures? Alligators make lousy pets
Lecture Nov 16
*our nervous systems, our brains, are what set us apart and make us unique to other species, but
we are not better than any species, in fact other species are better than us at some things*
3 news items: Einstein, soccer fans…
The brain is where the action is
Four Brain mapping techniques:
Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Medulla
Mapping within cerebral cortex-
[Cerebral cortex is where the alcohol starts working then it moves to the cerebellum, alcohol
keeps moving south and ends up in the medulla]
1 brain mapping technique:
change the environment then you look for changes in behavior/nervous system. Imagine taking
an animal and putting it in a different environment, and then you examine that animal’s brain…
primary function is to say “cool it” when it comes to things like alcohol
2 brain mapping technique:
damage the nervous system and then you watch the changes in behavior i.e. knock out a struct