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# Things to Remember - Research Statistics.docx

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University of Guelph

Psychology

PSYC 2040

David Stanley

Winter

Description

Things to Remember - Research Statistics
Introduction
Parameter - describes the population
Statistic - describes the sample
Unbiased Estimate - mean of all of the possible values is equal to the parameter
(biased is when it is not equal)
Standard Deviation - amount that score differs from population mean
Standard Error - amount that sample means differ from population mean due to
effects of random sampling, equal to the standard deviation divided by the square
root of the sample size
Degrees of Freedom - number of values that are allowed to vary in data set
Central Limit Theorem - regardless of shape, sample means will always be normal
as long as we have large sample sizes
Single Sample T-Tests
Assumptions: population is normal, random sampling
P-value tells us probability of finding a t-value that big if the population mean is
equal to the hypothesized mean (p = .00 means there is a 0% chance of getting that
value if the population mean equals the hypothesized mean therefore we reject the
null).
T-value tells you difference between the hyp

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