PSYC 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Robert Cialdini, Eye Contact, Social Comparison Theory

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
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Social Psychology Notes Pre-Midterm 2
Obedience and
February 9, 2012
- Asch Study Across Cultures
o Version of Asch’s experiments have been replicated in more than a dozen studies
- Conformity across cultures
o Hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies, are
low in conformity
- Berry’s study
o Correlated the degree of independence with the sample’s position on an ecocultural
dimension
o He found a correlation of 0.70 between ecocultural dimension of self-reliance and
independence or nonconformity
- Definition of obedience
o Obedience is conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure
- Obedience to the authority
o Milgram
o Shocking study
o Milgram’s experiments re-visited (2007)
- Intense indoctrination
o How to cult groups manage to exert such total control over the lives of their members?
1. Softening-up stage
2. Compliance stage
3. Internalization stage
4. Consolidation stage
o These reduce attentional capacity
- Power distance
o Power distance refers to the tendency to see a large distance between those in the
upper versus lower parts of a social structure
o High: Mexico, Guatemala. Low: Scandinavian, Austria, is real
- Cultural differences
o Meta analysis indicated that obedience ranges from a low of 16% among female
students in Australia to 92% in the Netherlands
- Obedience and individuals differences
o Personal characteristics related to obedience:
Authoritarian submission
Internal-external locus of control dimension
Tuesday February 14, 2011
- Method of Investigation
o Controlled experiment
Advantage: provides context for addressing whether or not an effect is real and
which theoretical account explains it
Disadvantage:
o Six Principles of Social Influence
Robert Cialdini found that the key to successful influence was what we do
before attempting to influence
Reciprocation
Complying with a request of someone who has previously provided a
favour
Study by Berry and Kanouse those who got money at beginning of
questionnaire were significantly more likely to complete the
questionnaire. Only a few people who did not complete questionnaire
cashed the cheque.
Door-in-the-face technique (reciprocal concessions procedure)
Social Validation (Consensus)
Complying with a request if it is consistent with what similar others are
thinking or doing
Based on Social Comparison Theory
We follow the lead of many others and similar others
Consistency
After committing to a position, one is more likely to complying with
requests that are consistent with that position
Foot-in-the-door technique
Legitimization-of-paltry-favours (or even a penny would help) technique
Friendship/ Liking
One is more likely to comply with the requests of friends or other liked
individuals
Increasing friendship/liking:
o Similarity
o Compliment
o Cooperation
o Physical Attractiveness
Scarcity
One tries to secure opportunities that are scarce
Sources of power of scarcity:
o Scarcity means better quality
o Scarcity interferes with personal freedom and people react
against the interference by wanting to posses the item more:
based on reactance theory
Authority
One complies to the request of someone who is a legitimate authority
Thursday, February 16, 2012
Cultural Context of Persuasion: Communication and Commercialism
- Stages of competence
o Effective communication
Isomorphic attribution
o Four stages of competence
Unconscious incompetence
Conscious incompetence (you realize misunderstanding of behaviour, do not
have frame of reference to behave properly)
Conscious competence
Unconscious competence
o Source and structure of message
Best sources of message
Individualist: credible, expert and winner
Collectivist: older males, famous families
Structure of message
Individualist: linear, conclusion is supported through inductive or
deductive reasoning
Collectivist: “beating around the bush”
o Paralinguistic Communication
How we behave, eye contact, touching,
Eye contact
High level on eye contact: Arabs, Latin American, Southern Europeans
Low level: Asians, Indians, Northern Europeans
Touching
Parts of body being touched is culturally determined
o Comparison of American and Japanese
Culture Differences:
o Comparison of touching behaviour among American, Italian,
and Czech
o Hand touch and non-hand touch were observed among 120
participants
o Results: Czech men engaged in more hand touching
Hand touching is associated with power and societies
where gender roles are more traditional, there is more
asymmetry in this behaviour
No gender differences among Americans
Results: Non-hand touching (hugs, kiss cheeks)

Document Summary

Asch study across cultures: version of asch"s experiments have been replicated in more than a dozen studies. Conformity across cultures: hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies, are low in conformity. Berry"s study: correlated the degree of independence with the sample"s position on an ecocultural dimension, he found a correlation of 0. 70 between ecocultural dimension of self-reliance and independence or nonconformity. Definition of obedience: obedience is conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure. Obedience to the authority: milgram, shocking study, milgram"s experiments re-visited (2007) Internalization stage: consolidation stage, these reduce attentional capacity. Power distance: power distance refers to the tendency to see a large distance between those in the upper versus lower parts of a social structure, high: mexico, guatemala. Cultural differences: meta analysis indicated that obedience ranges from a low of 16% among female students in australia to 92% in the netherlands. Obedience and individuals differences: personal characteristics related to obedience: