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Social Psychology Notes PreMidterm 2.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Social Psychology Notes Pre-Midterm 2 Obedience and February 9, 2012 - Asch Study Across Cultures o Version of Asch’s experiments have been replicated in more than a dozen studies - Conformity across cultures o Hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies, are low in conformity - Berry’s study o Correlated the degree of independence with the sample’s position on an ecocultural dimension o He found a correlation of 0.70 between ecocultural dimension of self-reliance and independence or nonconformity - Definition of obedience o Obedience is conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure - Obedience to the authority o Milgram o Shocking study o Milgram’s experiments re-visited (2007) - Intense indoctrination o How to cult groups manage to exert such total control over the lives of their members? 1. Softening-up stage 2. Compliance stage 3. Internalization stage 4. Consolidation stage o These reduce attentional capacity - Power distance o Power distance refers to the tendency to see a large distance between those in the upper versus lower parts of a social structure o High: Mexico, Guatemala. Low: Scandinavian, Austria, is real - Cultural differences o Meta analysis indicated that obedience ranges from a low of 16% among female students in Australia to 92% in the Netherlands - Obedience and individuals differences o Personal characteristics related to obedience:  Authoritarian submission  Internal-external locus of control dimension Tuesday February 14, 2011 - Method of Investigation o Controlled experiment  Advantage: provides context for addressing whether or not an effect is real and which theoretical account explains it  Disadvantage: o Six Principles of Social Influence  Robert Cialdini found that the key to successful influence was what we do before attempting to influence  Reciprocation  Complying with a request of someone who has previously provided a favour  Study by Berry and Kanouse those who got money at beginning of questionnaire were significantly more likely to complete the questionnaire. Only a few people who did not complete questionnaire cashed the cheque.  Door-in-the-face technique (reciprocal concessions procedure)  Social Validation (Consensus)  Complying with a request if it is consistent with what similar others are thinking or doing  Based on Social Comparison Theory  We follow the lead of many others and similar others  Consistency  After committing to a position, one is more likely to complying with requests that are consistent with that position  Foot-in-the-door technique  Legitimization-of-paltry-favours (or even a penny would help) technique  Friendship/ Liking  One is more likely to comply with the requests of friends or other liked individuals  Increasing friendship/liking: o Similarity o Compliment o Cooperation o Physical Attractiveness  Scarcity  One tries to secure opportunities that are scarce  Sources of power of scarcity: o Scarcity means better quality o Scarcity interferes with personal freedom and people react against the interference by wanting to posses the item more: based on reactance theory  Authority  One complies to the request of someone who is a legitimate authority Thursday, February 16, 2012 Cultural Context of Persuasion: Communication and Commercialism - Stages of competence o Effective communication  Isomorphic attribution o Four stages of competence  Unconscious incompetence  Conscious incompetence (you realize misunderstanding of behaviour, do not have frame of reference to behave properly)  Conscious competence  Unconscious competence o Source and structure of message  Best sources of message  Individualist: credible, expert and winner  Collectivist: older males, famous families  Structure of message  Individualist: linear, conclusion is supported through inductive or deductive reasoning  Collectivist: “beating around the bush” o Paralinguistic Communication  How we behave, eye contact, touching,  Eye contact  High level on eye contact: Arabs, Latin American, Southern Europeans  Low level: Asians, Indians, Northern Europeans  Touching  Parts of body being touched is culturally determined o Comparison of American and Japanese  Culture Differences: o Comparison of touching behaviour among American, Italian, and Czech o Hand touch and non-hand touch were observed among 120 participants o Results: Czech men engaged in more hand touching  Hand touching is associated with power and societies where gender roles are more traditional, there is more asymmetry in this behaviour  No gender differences among Americans  Results: Non-hand touching (hugs, kiss cheeks)  Italian women engage in more. Women engage in more in traditional societies. - Physical differences o Japanese stay farthest apart, Venezuela stand closest, Americans in between o Women require less space than men - Six factors of influence o Social influence in US, China, Spain, Germany  Reciprocation very important (US)  Authority (China)  Friendship and Liking (Spain)  Consistency (Germany) - Physical attractiveness o 1500 Italian men viewed attractive female newscaster o Asked how much news can you recall? o Captured by newscasters lips o ¾ failed to remember anything during first 30 seconds o Attention levels go back to normal after 2minutes o 40% remembered the news if newscaster was attractive vs. 72% who viewed an unattractive newscaster - Modern propaganda o Characteristics o modern persuasion  Use of peripheral route  The message-dense environment  30 second ad  The immediacy of persuasion Tuesday February 28, 2012 - Group elements o Some central elements in conceptualisation of a group:  Common goal  Social structure  Face-to-face (or some form of) interaction  Self-categorisation - Basic group processes o Individualist: Allport  There is nothing more to a group than the people who comprise it o Collectivist: Sherif  There is something more to a group than just the people who comprise it - Group structure o Norms  Morns are ways of specifying what are acceptable (or unacceptable) attitudes and behaviours of group members o Functions of norms  For individuals: norms are frame of reference to interpret the world, provides predictability, and useful in novel situations  For group: norms serve as social regulation that helps the group runs smoothly and enhance group identity o General norms: we can violate a little bit (clothing)
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