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Midterm

Social Psychology Things to Remember Midterm 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Semester
Winter

Description
Social Psychology - Midterm 1 Chapter 1: Social psychology is scientific study of the way a person’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by real or imaged presence of others. How we think about our selves: self-perception and self-presentation How we think, feel and act in social world: social-perception, social-cognition, social-influence How out attitudes and behaviour shape the social world: self-fulfilling prophecy Science has set of values (e.g. accuracy, skepticism, objectivity) th History of Social Psychology: rooted in Western culture, goes back to 19 century, behaviouralism, Gestalt psychology, Norman Triplett (social facilitation), Floyd Allport (wrote Social Psychology), WW2, positive psychology, Gordon Allport (prejudice, stereotypes, establishment of SPSSI), Muzaher Sherif (social influence in the field - tasks where groups work together can decrease intergroup conflict), Kurt Lewin (action research - used to change people’s attitudes and behaviours), Soloman Asch (conformity), Leon Festinger (cognitive dissonance), Stanley Milgram (obedience) Hindsight Bias: “I knew it all along.” Social Constructionism: knowledge and reality are relative to the social circumstances and environment they come from and can only be understood under those conditions Chapter 3: Two components of self… 1. Self knowledge - what you know about yourself, “me”, becomes more complex as you get older 2. Self awareness - the ability to look back into the contents of self, “I”, something you can access at any time Three features of self: includes the body, is an active agent, includes social identity. Functions of self: interpersonal tool (people interact with you based on your personality), self-regulator (what has priority), and decision maker. Self-knowledge comes from memories and social feedback. We are born with a sense of self but it is very simple (more complex with age) Self-knowledge is not always accurate because: people are polite (we don’t know what people really think of us), we hear what we want to hear (they are jealous, they don’t know what they are talking about), false uniqueness bias (underestimate the number of people that also have our positive qualities) and false consensus bias (overestimate the number of people that have the same opinions / beliefs as us). It is possible to have an accurate self-knowledge (autobiographers) vs. It is not possible to have an accurate self-knowledge (psychoanalysts - need the help of a professional to reach some levels of consciousness)  Social psychologists are somewhere in between Introspection: “Looking within”, only participate in introspection 8% of time (92% thinking of things we need to do) Why? Too busy, often are not good at explaining our own behaviour (watching video with loud noise in background study) Healthy self-knowledge includes systematic distortions of reality such as: exaggerated positive self-evaluation (I am smarter, I would never do something like that), exaggerated optimism (depressed people have accurate understanding of the world), and exaggerated sense of control (coping mechanism, but really it could happen to any of us). * There is a healthy margin! Affective Forecasting: we overestimate the length of time a positive or negative event will affect us (“I am never getting over him.”) Self-esteem is a sense of personal worth and remains stable over lifetime (importance of self-esteem in children). We enhance our self-esteem by social comparisons (downward or upward) Dark Side of Self-Esteem: inflated self-esteem can be dangerous and they can become aggressive when that self-esteem is threatened (study)  Self-Handicapping: creating obstacles for success so when failure occurs, you can blame it on the obstacles Low Self-Esteem  Past Experience  Low Effort, High Anxiety  Failure  Attributing Failure to Internal Factors  Low Self Esteem Women attribute successes to effort and failures to lack of skill while men attribute successes to skill and failures to bad luck. Self-awareness can be increased or decreased due to state (mirrors vs. alcohol) and trait (some people more self-aware than others). Self-awareness is a good thing to an extent (arousal increases performance but too much causes you to choke) Self-Discrepancy Theory: how we think about ourselves depends on the gap between how we view ourselves and how we want to view ourselves, bigger the gap, less positive you feel Self-Awareness Theory: we only notice these discrepancies when we are focusing on our own behaviour Self-Perception Theory: we look at our own behaviour to determine our attitudes (facial feedback hypothesis) Intrinsic motivation is when you do something because you like it and you want to, while extrinsic motivation is when you are doing something for a reward or to avoid punishment. Self-Promotion: the tendency to present yourself in a way that says you are competent Ingratiation: trying to be liked, constant flattery, can be seen as insincere Self-Verification: tendency to be around people that see us the way we see ourselves  Self-monitors are the amount in which we change our behaviour depending on the situation (high self-monitors - constantly changing, low self-monitors - consistent behaviour) Spotlight Effect: overestimating the amount of people that are focused on our behaviour Culture is both tangible (in the way we dress, what we eat, art, architecture) and intangible (in our minds / memories, values, social norms). No one person embodies the entirety of a culture (collective understanding). Culture changes slowly but constantly (over generations). There are many similarities between cultures (basic emotions, art, math) but many differences in practicing social behaviours and interpreting experiences (marriage, religion, food). Culture shapes our experiences, ecology shapes culture (culture is byproduct of environment it has adapted to). Individualistic cultures: independent self, memories are in first person, project needs and feelings on to others, see self as being consistent over time, believe they have some control over what happens to them and are overall more happy (“Life is good.”), focus on being unique and memorable, self gives rise to self-actualization, express more negative emotions to in group members, focus on context over tone, use less social words (mother, friend, give, advice)  USA, Australia, UK, Netherlands and Canada Collectivistic cultures: interdependent self, who they are is connected with surroundings, someone else is focus of memories, try to understand others’ emotions, intentions etc., more interested in social comparison, see self as being more flexile and adaptive and that they have less control (“Life is good and bad.”), conforming to your duties, behaviour is contingent on what actor perceives (expectations of others), express more positive emotions to in group members, focus on tone over context  Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama, Columbia, Guatemala 3 Aspects of self: private (how you think of yourself), public (how others think of you) and collective (how you identify in a group) Important Points: cultures and nations are two different things, cultures are heterogeneous (comparing averages), cultures influence each other and the differences between cultures are in emphasis. Ecological Fallacy: assumption that relationships between variables at the population level are the same as relationships at the individual level (stereotyping) Chapter 4: Kelley’s Covariation Theory: looks at factors that are present during the behaviour and absent when it does not occur (consistency - high consistency means dispositional attribution will be made, consensus - high consensus means situational attribution will be made, distinctiveness - if this is a rare event a situational attribution is made) Weiner’s Attribution Theory: attribution for achievements depends on 3 factors - locus (success internal, failu
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