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PSYC 2330 CH Notes (Pre midterm 1).docx

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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PSYC2330CH 1Descartes dualism mind separates humans from animals animalspure body without mind and free will actions governed by simple mechanical principles Reflex actionmechanistic principle supposed to explain bodys activity for every action of the body there is a stimulus that makes it happen processed in the mind o auto connections between stimulus and responseHedonismHobbes pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain reinforcement theoryMettrie body affects mindBritish empiricists aka associationistsphilosophers thinking about the things the mind contains ie Locke and Hume Empiricismall ideas and knowledge are built up entirely from experienceLocke mindblank slate at birth Atomistic approachmind receives only simple sensations inputs combinedall complex ideas Hume associates between ideasLaws of associationhow associations are formed and how they operateo Impressionsideas associated if similar lively dwelt upon for long time and occurred together recentlyRationalismKant alternative to empiricism some things exist in the mind before experience writes on it a prioris help mould and organize experience o Causality some things cause other things to happen Sechenov mental processes could be analyzed in terms of physiological mechanisms reflexes o Thoughtsresponses reflective responses to stimuliEarly comparative psychologistsgoal to trace evolution of mind by studying mental lives of animalsMorgans canonMorgan law of parsimony example of behaviour should be explained by simpler mental process Law of effectresponse followed by satisfaction ie foodsituationresponse SR connection strengthened discomfort ie shockweakened Conditioned reflexpsychic reflex ie after a few times of putting food into dogs mouth it salivates merely at the sight of food learned to drool to a signal of foodConditioningway to study psychological process of learning Structuralismanalyze structure of mind introspection implications ie cant be falsifiedWatson study of behavioureveryone can see any claim can be easily confirmed or falsifiedo Link hypothetical mental processes to behavioural output that can be studied and measured objectively ie little Albert Radical behaviourismSkinner reflexrelationship between 2 events given stimulusresponse likely to occur o reflexphysiological reflex arc sensory neuron must respond to stimulus Sfire a motor neuron that excites muscleresponse R o behaviour related to environmentSkinner boxbox to study rats ie mazes levers etc response can repeat over and over Operantrespondent distinction Operant experimentie lever press response voluntaryoperant operates on environment ie food pelletreinforce increases rate of response Operant voluntary behaviour controlled by its consequences emitted Respondentoperant response related to consequences response elicited by an antecedent stimulus event that precedes it elicited Operational behaviourismunobservable events in explanation of behaviour use rigorously and carefullyIntervening variableTolman theoretical construct addition of variable that affects responseo Simplifies picture by reducingof empirical stimulusresponse correlationso Suggests new hypotheses and relationships that stimulate new research Hull drivemotivation caused by biological need ie hunger thirst etc influenced by being deprived of something important o habitlearning influenced byof times behaviour was reinforcedo drive x habitperformanceo emphasis on intervening variables and relations between motivation and learning CH 2 406evolution through natural selectionunnecessary characteristics fade out necessary spreadexpand importancereproductive success o fit ability to produce offspring that will reproduce in the next generation Characteristics gain survival value representedinherited in next generationsEthologystudy of adaptiveness and evolution of behaviour in nature evaluative approach most powerful when evidence obtained confirming hypothetical benefithow behaviour has adapted to environment by studying related species in different environmentsFixed action patternsfixed behaviour sequences triggered by stimuli releasers or sign stimuli o Highly stereotypic depend on initial triggering only and not supposed to depend on learning built into genes innateo ie cocoonbuilding behaviour smiling eyebrow flashing Artificial selectionmethod of studying innateness whether behaviours can be passed onto generations by only allowing animals that show a specific behaviour to interbreedinnatebehaviours that have no obvious basis in learning o Classical conditioning makes it evoked by cues that signal sign stimuli o can be modified by instrumental conditioning Behaviour affected by response learning experience can modify innate behavioursHabituationcommon feature of behaviour sign stimulus is presented repeatedly strength of response declines o prevents from wasting timeenergy on behaviours not necessary experience changes behaviour completely inflexible behaviourunable to adjust to changes in environment benefit from ability to learn Innate behaviours there the first time needed following timeslearned adapted558Animals sometimes confronted with signals for danger o ie signalelectrical shock conditioningsignal arouses set of behavioural and physiological responses fearo signal for electric shock induces state of analgesia become less sensitive to pain caused by release of endorphins natural opiates in the body that can deaden pain fearchanges in heart rate blood pressure respiration prepare to defendo ie rodents main responsestop in its tracks freezing adaptive response may reduce predation because predators respond to movementclassical conditioning can occur with drugs as Ss anytime drug ingested opportunity to associate it S with cues Ss present at time ie places drugs taken people taken with rituals etc o conditioned responseadaptive
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