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PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

October-21-13 11:28 PM 2. The Brain: A Secret History: Documentary Questions Angela: Why does Angela need brain surgery? -She has been having epileptic fits. What is the nature of the surgery-i.e. what are the surgeons doing, and where are they doing it? - Surgeons are going to take out part of her brain in the temporal lobe. Leborgne: What was the nature of Leborgnes behavioural deficit? -He lost the ability to speak other then for one word which was tonk. Where was his brain damage? -Broca's area was where the chunk was missing. Broca's area is in the left frontal lobe which is the side of the brain in charge of language. How did Broca know where Leborgne's brain damage was? -A chunk of his brain was missing when Broca performed an autopsy. What is the brain-behaviour principle supported by Broca's case study of Leborgne? -Localization which says certain areas of the brain control certain functions. There is a correlation between location of brain damage and what defects are experienced. Julia: What was the nature of Julia's behavioural deficit? -She is unable to name things. She knows what she is looking at, but cannot link the picture up to the word. Was Julia's damage in Broca's area? -No damage in Broca's area. The damage is farther back in the left hemisphere of her brain in her parietal cortex. How did Cathy Price know where Julia's brain damage was? - She used an MRI scanner for structural neuroimaging. What task was Julia performing while her brain was scanned? -Julia was reading. How does Julia's brain activity compare with the activity of control subjects without brain damage? -There is less activation in the damaged area as compared to a normal brain. Henry: Why did Henry need brain surgery? -He had consistent massive seizures as a result of a head injury as a child. What was the nature of the surgery- i.e., what were the surgeons doing, and where were they doing it? -The surgeon removed Henry's hippocampus using a straw. What was the nature of Henry's behavioural deficit resulting from the surgery? -Resulting from the surgery, Henry could no longer form new memories. He could only remember his childhood and up to the operation, but nothing after that. What memory related task was Henry able to perform after his surgery and what does that tell us about memory? -He was still able to learn motor tasks and improve on physical skills. This tells us there are two types of memories, unconscious memories to learn new skills and conscious memories to remember life events. What techniques have been used to map Henry's brain? -High resolution photos are taken of each slice of the brain and examined at micrographic levels. Split-Brain Why was split-brain surgery performed? -To stop seizures (epilepsy). What structure was targeted in split-brain surgery? -The corpus callosum which is the covering which connects both halves of the brain was cut in half. How abnormal are split- brain patients? -They appeared to be very normal, meaning both hemispheres are capable of operating independently. What happens when a split-brain patient is asked to name an object presented in their left hand? -They name the wrong object. Right hemisphere controls the left hand and right hemisphere could not communicate to the left hemisphere for the left hemisphere to verbalize what object was in the hand. Language is controlled by which hemisphere? -Left hemisphere Spatial awareness is controlled by which hemisphere? -Right hemisphere What syndrome did Karen develop after her split-brain surgery? -Her left hand had a mind of its own, known as alien hand syndrome. Plasticity What is neural plasticity? - How did Paul Bach-y-Rita and colleagues demonstrate plasticity in blind subjects -  Critical period for sensory and perceptual development in humans and animals.  BBC: Is Seeing Believing? Documentary Questions Segments:  Magic: o What do people perceive in the vanishing ball illusion? -They see the ball leave the hand and disappear o Do the eyes follow the trajectory of the vanishing ball? -Using eye tracking equipment, they do not follow the trajectory o What does the vanishing ball illusion tell us about perception? -When you make predictions about what will happen, our perception is influenced by it -In this experiment, the viewers saw the ball thrown multiple times and upon seeing the same hand motion, assumed the ball was thrown again when it really wasn't.  McGurk illusion: o FITB: The McGurk illusion demonstrates that information from the _visual_____ system overrides information from the __audition____ system. o T or : The perception of sounds is determined solely by the physical information being received by the ears? o Why is it important that the mind/brain makes a choice when it gets conflicting information from two sensory systems such as audition and vision? 3. The effect of context on perception: o How do the bees know where to find sugar when the “blue” and “purple” flowers are physically identical? -The bees remembered where the blue flowers were based on the context. o Is there a direct correspondence between the electromagnetic energy that falls on the eyes and the colour we perceive? No, the radiation from the surrounding objects makes a huge difference in the colour we perceive. o FITB: Beau Lotto estimates that _10____% of the information that contributes to our visual perception comes from the eyes – the remaining ___90___% comes from within our minds (e.g., our innate and learned expectations). Nature or Nurture? o What is the hollow mask illusion? The hollow mask appears to be convex to us. Perceive the inside of a mask as protruding face, but will reach into face to flick off a bug meaning their conscious mind may not know something, but their unconscious mind might. o How do babies respond when they cannot yet speak? They show some form of interest o Do infants experience the hollow mask illusion? Yes o Choose one: When babies perceive the same things as adults, scientists typically conclude that nature or nurture determines perception? -Nature as they assume it is an innate instinct o Multisensory integration o What is synesthesia? A mixing of the senses meaning an experience in one sense can trigger a completely different sensation in another o One hypothesis suggests that we were all synesthetes when…? o Adding colour to liquid influences the way it __aste___? o Manipulating the sound resulting from biting into chips influences judgments of _texture_____? o What is the rubber hand illusion? In the illusion, watching the rubber hand being stroked while your real hand is being stroked causes the brain to adopt the rubber hand as its own, so when the hand is hit, it feels as though your own hand has been hit. o FITB: The rubber hand illusion demonstrates that information from the ______ system overrides information from the ______ system. o Sensory substitution: o FITB: Daniel, who is blind, uses _______ instead of vision for navigation? o Listening to clicks activates what part of Daniel’s brain? o FITB: Tactor technology enables pilots to substitute ______ information for ______ information. o What is most interesting about the experience of people who are given tactile information to convey information about their position relative to the earth’s magnetic field? 1. DOCUMENTARY: Dopamine-The Two Faced Molecule Introduction: The two faces of dopamine are represented by which two disease states?  Parkinson's Disease and addict
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